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Toll-Like Receptor Triggering of a Vitamin D-Mediated Human Antimicrobial Response
In innate immune responses, activation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) triggers direct antimicrobial activity against intracellular bacteria, which in murine, but not human, monocytes and macrophagesExpand
Host defense mechanisms triggered by microbial lipoproteins through toll-like receptors.
The generation of cell-mediated immunity against many infectious pathogens involves the production of interleukin-12 (IL-12), a key signal of the innate immune system. Yet, for many pathogens, theExpand
Cutting Edge: Role of Toll-Like Receptor 1 in Mediating Immune Response to Microbial Lipoproteins1
The Toll-like receptor (TLR) family acts as pattern recognition receptors for pathogen-specific molecular patterns (PAMPs). TLR2 is essential for the signaling of a variety of PAMPs, includingExpand
IRF3 mediates a TLR3/TLR4-specific antiviral gene program.
We have identified a subset of genes that is specifically induced by stimulation of TLR3 or TLR4 but not by TLR2 or TLR9. Further gene expression analyses established that upregulation of severalExpand
Toll-like Receptors Induce a Phagocytic Gene Program through p38
Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling and phagocytosis are hallmarks of macrophage-mediated innate immune responses to bacterial infection. However, the relationship between these two processes is notExpand
An antimicrobial activity of cytolytic T cells mediated by granulysin.
Cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTLs) kill intracellular pathogens by a granule-dependent mechanism. Granulysin, a protein found in granules of CTLs, reduced the viability of a broad spectrum of pathogenicExpand
The CD1 system: antigen-presenting molecules for T cell recognition of lipids and glycolipids.
Recent studies have identified the CD1 family of proteins as novel antigen-presenting molecules encoded by genes located outside of the major histocompatibility complex. CD1 proteins are conserved inExpand
Injury enhances TLR2 function and antimicrobial peptide expression through a vitamin D-dependent mechanism.
An essential element of the innate immune response to injury is the capacity to recognize microbial invasion and stimulate production of antimicrobial peptides. We investigated how this process isExpand
IL-17 is essential for host defense against cutaneous Staphylococcus aureus infection in mice.
Staphylococcus aureus is the most common cause of skin and soft tissue infections, and rapidly emerging antibiotic-resistant strains are creating a serious public health concern. If immune-basedExpand
TLR activation triggers the rapid differentiation of monocytes into macrophages and dendritic cells
Leprosy enables investigation of mechanisms by which the innate immune system contributes to host defense against infection, because in one form, the disease progresses, and in the other, theExpand