• Publications
  • Influence
Classical conditioning of proboscis extension in honeybees (Apis mellifera).
Extension of the proboscis was conditioned in restrained honeybees with odor as the conditioned stimulus (CS) and sucrose solution--delivered to the antenna (to elicit extension of the proboscis) andExpand
  • 942
  • 121
Memory dynamics in the honeybee
  • R. Menzel
  • Psychology
  • Journal of Comparative Physiology A
  • 25 October 1999
Abstract Reward learning in honeybees initiates a sequence of events which leads to long-lasting memory passing through multiple phases of transient memories. The study of memory dynamics isExpand
  • 520
  • 60
  • PDF
The spectral input systems of hymenopteran insects and their receptor-based colour vision
SummarySpectral sensitivity functions S(λ) of single photoreceptor cells in 43 different hymenopteran species were measured intracellularly with the fast spectral scan method. The distribution ofExpand
  • 545
  • 52
Detection of coloured stimuli by honeybees: minimum visual angles and receptor specific contrasts
Honeybees Apis mellifera were trained to distinguish between the presence and the absence of a rewarded coloured spot, presented on a vertical, achromatic plane in a Y-maze. They were subsequentlyExpand
  • 280
  • 49
A digital three-dimensional atlas of the honeybee antennal lobe based on optical sections acquired by confocal microscopy
Abstract We present a digital atlas of the glomeruli in the antennal lobe of the honeybee, Apis mellifera, accessible to the scientific community via the Internet. The atlas allows the identificationExpand
  • 244
  • 38
  • PDF
Multiple sites of associative odor learning as revealed by local brain microinjections of octopamine in honeybees.
In a classical conditioning procedure, honeybees associate an odor with sucrose resulting in the capacity of the odor to evoke an appetitive response, the extension of the proboscis (PER). Here, weExpand
  • 488
  • 35
  • PDF
Searching for the memory trace in a mini-brain, the honeybee.
  • R. Menzel
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Learning & memory
  • 1 March 2001
To determine general or species-specific properties in neural systems, it is necessary to use comparative data in evaluating experimental findings. Presented here are data on associative learning andExpand
  • 485
  • 34
  • PDF
Colour thresholds and receptor noise: behaviour and physiology compared
Photoreceptor noise sets an absolute limit for the accuracy of colour discrimination. We compared colour thresholds in the honeybee (Apis mellifera) with this limit. Bees were trained to discriminateExpand
  • 241
  • 34
  • PDF
The glomerular code for odor representation is species specific in the honeybee Apis mellifera
Odors are coded by glomerular activity patterns in the insect antennal lobe (AL) and in the mammalian olfactory bulb. We measured glomerular responses to 30 different odors in the AL of honeybeesExpand
  • 326
  • 33
  • PDF
Evaluation of atlas selection strategies for atlas-based image segmentation with application to confocal microscopy images of bee brains
Segmentation by intensity-based nonrigid registration to atlas images is applied to confocal microscopy images acquired from the brains of bees. Expand
  • 552
  • 29
  • PDF