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Food-deprivation increases cocaine-induced conditioned place preference and locomotor activity in rats
Abstract Food-deprivation increases the reinforcing efficacy of cocaine and other drugs within self-administration experiments. In this study, the effects of food-deprivation on cocaine-inducedExpand
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Etonitazene as a reinforcer: Oral intake of etonitazene by rhesus monkeys
Drinking of etonitazene HCl was studied in three rhesus monkeys during daily 3-h sessions. As the drug concentration was increased, the number of liquid deliveries decreased, and etonitazene intakeExpand
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Reinforcement by orally delivered methadone, cocaine, and methadone-cocaine combinations in rhesus monkeys: are the combinations better reinforcers?
Abstract.Rationale: Polydrug abuse is a problem that has been infrequently examined. In the present study, drug self-administration procedures were used to investigate the reinforcing effects of drugExpand
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Relation between choice of ethanol concentration and response rates under progressive- and fixed-ratio schedules: studies with rhesus monkeys
RationaleA fundamental problem in the study of drugs as reinforcers is the evaluation of a drug's relative reinforcing effects and changes in such effects. Relative reinforcing effects can beExpand
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Lever-press responding maintained by contingent intraperitoneal administration of etonitazene in Long Evans hooded rats
Lever pressing maintained by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of etonitazene was established in five Long Evans hooded rats. Each training session consisted of an 8-min fixed interval (FI) duringExpand
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Ethanol as a reinforcer: Effects of fixed-ratio size and food deprivation
Rats having prior experience with ethanol drinking were subjected to geometrically increasing fixed-ratio (FR) schedules of ethanol reinforcement (8% W/V). The rats were tested first food deprivedExpand
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Determinants of increased drug self-administration due to food deprivation
Changes in oral etonitazene self-administration were compared in four groups of rats that were maintained at 100, 95, 85, or 75% of their pre-experimental free-feeding body weights. Etonitazene (5Expand
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Etonitazene as a reinforcer for rats: Increased etonitazene-reinforced behavior due to food deprivation
Etonitazene-reinforced performance of rats was increased by food deprivation and decreased by food satiation. These changes were not due to general increases in either activity or liquid intake.
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Methadone and nicotine self-administration in humans: a behavioral economic analysis
RationalePrior research has revealed inconsistencies in the behavioral relations between nicotine and opiates among methadone-maintained patients.ObjectivesThe current study examined whether the drugExpand
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