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A human homologue of the Drosophila Toll protein signals activation of adaptive immunity
The cloning and characterization of a human homologue of the Drosophila toll protein (Toll) is reported, which has been shown to induce the innate immune response in adult Dosophila.
Innate immune recognition.
Microbial recognition by Toll-like receptors helps to direct adaptive immune responses to antigens derived from microbial pathogens to distinguish infectious nonself from noninfectious self.
Toll-like receptor control of the adaptive immune responses
Recognition of microbial infection and initiation of host defense responses is controlled by multiple mechanisms and recent studies have provided important clues about the mechanisms of TLR-mediated control of adaptive immunity orchestrated by dendritic cell populations in distinct anatomical locations.
Recognition of double-stranded RNA and activation of NF-κB by Toll-like receptor 3
It is shown that mammalian TLR3 recognizes dsRNA, and that activation of the receptor induces the activation of NF-κB and the production of type I interferons (IFNs).
Origin and physiological roles of inflammation
This work has shown that tissue stress or malfunction induces an adaptive response that is intermediate between the basal homeostatic state and a classic inflammatory response, which is referred to here as para-inflammation.
Recognition of Commensal Microflora by Toll-Like Receptors Is Required for Intestinal Homeostasis
It is shown that commensal bacteria are recognized by TLRs under normal steady-state conditions, and this interaction plays a crucial role in the maintenance of intestinal epithelial homeostasis and protection from injury.
Recognition of microorganisms and activation of the immune response
The mammalian immune system has innate and adaptive components, which cooperate to protect the host against microbial infections, and recent progress brings us closer to an integrated view of the immune system and its function in host defence.
Toll-like receptors and innate immunity
  • R. Medzhitov
  • Biology, Medicine
    Nature Reviews Immunology
  • 1 November 2001
This work has shown that activation of inflammatory and antimicrobial innate immune responses through recognition of Toll-like receptors expressed on dendritic cells triggers functional maturation of dendrites and leads to initiation of antigen-specific adaptive immune responses.
Toll Pathway-Dependent Blockade of CD4+CD25+ T Cell-Mediated Suppression by Dendritic Cells
A second mechanism of immune induction by TLRs is described, which is independent of effects on costimulation, and dependent in part on interleukin-6, which was induced byTLRs upon recognition of microbial products.
Toll-like Receptor 9–mediated Recognition of Herpes Simplex Virus-2 by Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells
A novel mechanism whereby the genomic DNA of a virus can engage TLR9 and result in the secretion of IFN-α by pDCs is demonstrated.