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How natural infection by Nosema ceranae causes honeybee colony collapse.
TLDR
It is shown for first time that natural N. ceranae infection can cause the sudden collapse of bee colonies, establishing a direct correlation between N. ceramice infection and the death of honeybee colonies under field conditions. Expand
Outcome of Colonization of Apis mellifera by Nosema ceranae
TLDR
The multiplex PCR assay was useful for specific detection of the two species of microsporidians related to bee nosemosis, not only in purified spores but also in honeybee homogenates and in naturally infected bees. Expand
Experimental infection of Apis mellifera honeybees with Nosema ceranae (Microsporidia).
TLDR
The large number of parasitized cells, even the regenerative ones, the presence of autoinfective spores and the high mortality rate demonstrate that N. ceranae is highly pathogenic to Apis mellifera. Expand
Immune suppression in the honey bee (Apis mellifera) following infection by Nosema ceranae (Microsporidia).
TLDR
Evidence is presented that N. ceranae infection significantly suppresses the honey bee immune response, although this effect was not observed following infection with N. apis. Expand
Standard methods for Nosema research
TLDR
Methods for working with Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae in the field and in the laboratory are described, including different means for determining colony level and individual bee infection levels and methods for species determination. Expand
Nosema ceranae in Europe: an emergent type C nosemosis
TLDR
The disease caused by N. ceranae is now named nosemosis type C (COLOSS workshop, 2009) and is characterized by the ability to detect the disease-causing agent throughout the year. Expand
South American native bumblebees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) infected by Nosema ceranae (Microsporidia), an emerging pathogen of honeybees (Apis mellifera).
TLDR
The presence of Nosema ceranae, an emerging honeybee pathogen, in three species of Argentine native bumblebees is described for the first time and the appearance of this pathogen is discussed in the context of the population decline of this pollinators. Expand
Honeybee colony collapse due to Nosema ceranae in professional apiaries.
TLDR
Anamnesis, clinical examination and analyses support that the depopulation in both cases was due to the infection by Nosema ceranae (Microsporidia), an emerging pathogen of Apis mellifera. Expand
Gut Pathology and Responses to the Microsporidium Nosema ceranae in the Honey Bee Apis mellifera
TLDR
An extensive characterization of the parasite effects at the molecular level by using genetic and biochemical tools gives new insights into the pathological effects of N. ceranae and the bee gut response, and demonstrates that the honey bee gut is an interesting model system for studying host defense responses. Expand
Nosema ceranae (Microsporidia), a controversial 21st century honey bee pathogen.
TLDR
For authors, the disease produced by N. ceranae infection cannot be considered a regional problem but rather a global one, as indicated by the wide prevalence of this parasite in multiple hosts. Expand
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