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LTP and LTD An Embarrassment of Riches
This work reviews those forms of LTP and LTD for which mechanisms have been most firmly established and examples are provided that show how these mechanisms can contribute to experience-dependent modifications of brain function. Expand
AMPA receptor trafficking and synaptic plasticity.
The growing literature that supports a critical role for AMPA receptors trafficking in LTP and LTD is reviewed, focusing on the roles proposed for specific AMPA receptor subunits and their interacting proteins. Expand
Long-term potentiation--a decade of progress?
A simple model is described that unifies much of the data that previously were viewed as contradictory about the molecular mechanisms of this long-lasting increase in synaptic strength in the hippocampus. Expand
Single cocaine exposure in vivo induces long-term potentiation in dopamine neurons
It is shown that a prominent form of synaptic plasticity can be elicited by a single in vivo exposure to cocaine and therefore may be involved in the early stages of the development of drug addiction. Expand
Neural mechanisms of addiction: the role of reward-related learning and memory.
Progress in identifying candidate mechanisms of addiction is reviewed, including molecular and cellular mechanisms that underlie long-term associative memories in several forebrain circuits (involving the ventral and dorsal striatum and prefrontal cortex) that receive input from midbrain dopamine neurons. Expand
Involvement of a calcineurin/ inhibitor-1 phosphatase cascade in hippocampal long-term depression
A signalling pathway in which calcineurin dephosphorylates and inactivates inhibitor-1 increases PP1 activity and contributes to the generation of LTD, which is suggested to be an activity-dependent decrease in synaptic efficacy. Expand
Regulation of AMPA receptor endocytosis by a signaling mechanism shared with LTD
It is shown that activation of NMDA receptors alone can trigger AMPA receptor endocytosis through calcium influx and activation of the calcium-dependent protein phosphatase calcineurin, and that a distinct signaling mechanism mediates the AMPA receptors endocyTosis stimulated by insulin. Expand
Drugs of Abuse and Stress Trigger a Common Synaptic Adaptation in Dopamine Neurons
It is demonstrated that in vivo administration of drugs of abuse with different molecular mechanisms of action as well as acute stress both increase strength at excitatory synapses on midbrain dopamine neurons, suggesting plasticity at excited synapses may be a key neural adaptation contributing to addiction and its interactions with stress. Expand
Mechanisms underlying induction of homosynaptic long-term depression in area CA1 of the hippocampus
Induction of homosynaptic LTD requires an NMDA receptor-dependent change in postsynaptic Ca2+ which may be distinct from that required for long-term potentiation. Expand
Evidence for silent synapses: Implications for the expression of LTP
It is demonstrated that it is possible to stimulate synapses that yield no detectable excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) when the cell is held at -60 mV; yet at positive holding potentials, EPSCs can be elicited that are completely blocked by the NMDAR antagonist, D-APV. Expand