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Immune Regulation by helminth parasites: cellular and molecular mechanisms
Long-lived parasites such as the helminths are more remarkable for their ability to downregulate host immunity, protecting themselves from elimination and minimizing severe pathology in the host. Expand
Diversity and dialogue in immunity to helminths
This Review discusses recent advances in defining the immune cell types and molecules that are mobilized in response to helminth infection and more broadly considers how these immunological players are blended and regulated in order to accommodate persistent infection or to mount a vigorous protective response and achieve sterile immunity. Expand
Helminth parasites – masters of regulation
It is hypothesized that parasites have evolved specific molecular strategies to induce this conducive landscape, and the foremost candidate immunomodulators released by helminths are reviewed, including cytokine homologs, protease inhibitors, and an intriguing set of novel products implicated in immune suppression. Expand
Helminth immunoregulation: The role of parasite secreted proteins in modulating host immunity
Current understanding of the growing number of individual helminth mediators that have been shown to target key receptors or pathways in the mammalian immune system is summarised. Expand
How common is human toxocariasis? Towards standardizing our knowledge.
International collaboration is required to develop web-based, professional educational support, surveillance questionnaires and standardized serodiagnostic criteria, and determining clinical benefits and treatment outcomes using less crossreactive antigens will enhance clinical and treatment interventions. Expand
Exosomes secreted by nematode parasites transfer small RNAs to mammalian cells and modulate innate immunity
It is demonstrated that the gastrointestinal nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus, which infects mice, secretes vesicles containing microRNAs (miRNAs) and Y RNAs as well as a nematODE Argonaute protein, suggesting that miRNA secretion into host tissues is conserved among parasitic nematodes. Expand
Suppression of allergic airway inflammation by helminth-induced regulatory T cells
Data support the contention that helminth infections elicit a regulatory T cell population able to down-regulate allergen induced lung pathology in vivo. Expand
Intestinal epithelial tuft cells initiate type 2 mucosal immunity to helminth parasites
It is shown that tuft cells, a rare epithelial cell type in the steady-state intestinal epithelium, are responsible for initiating type 2 responses to parasites by a cytokine-mediated cellular relay and a cellular relay required for initiating mucosal type 2 immunity to helminth infection. Expand
IL-4 directly signals tissue-resident macrophages to proliferate beyond homeostatic levels controlled by CSF-1
IL-4 and CSF-1 both contribute to macrophage proliferation during nematode infection, but IL-4 permits increased tissue macrophage density without the coincident monocyte infiltration associated withExpand
Chitinase and Fizz Family Members Are a Generalized Feature of Nematode Infection with Selective Upregulation of Ym1 and Fizz1 by Antigen-Presenting Cells
Ym1 and Fizz1 are secreted proteins that have been identified in a variety of Th2-mediated inflammatory settings and are induced at the site of infection with both the tissue nematode Litomosoides sigmodontis and the gastrointestinal nematodes Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Expand