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Lipid oxidation and peroxidation in CNS health and disease: from molecular mechanisms to therapeutic opportunities.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced at low levels in mammalian cells by various metabolic processes, such as oxidative phosphorylation by the mitochondrial respiratory chain, NAD(P)H oxidases,Expand
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Altered lipid metabolism in brain injury and disorders.
Deregulated lipid metabolism may be of particular importance for CNS injuries and disorders, as this organ has the highest lipid concentration next to adipose tissue. Atherosclerosis (a risk factorExpand
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Cytidine 5′-Diphosphocholine (CDP-Choline) in Stroke and Other CNS Disorders
Brain phosphatidylcholine (PC) levels are regulated by a balance between synthesis and hydrolysis. Pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 (IL-1α/β)Expand
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Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and matrix metalloproteinases in the pathogenesis of stroke: therapeutic strategies.
Today there exists only one FDA-approved treatment for ischemic stroke; i.e., the serine protease tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA). In the aftermath of the failed stroke clinical trials withExpand
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Role of Lipids in Brain Injury and Diseases.
Lipid metabolism is of particular interest due to its high concentration in CNS. The importance of lipids in cell signaling and tissue physiology is demonstrated by many CNS disorders and injuriesExpand
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Phospholipase A(2), reactive oxygen species, and lipid peroxidation in CNS pathologies.
The importance of lipids in cell signaling and tissue physiology is demonstrated by the many CNS pathologies involving deregulated lipid metabolism. One such critical metabolic event is theExpand
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Loss of cardiolipin and mitochondria during programmed neuronal death: evidence of a role for lipid peroxidation and autophagy
Cardiolipin, a lipid of the mitochondrial inner membrane, is lost from many types of cells during apoptotic death. Here we show that the cardiolipin content of nerve growth factor (NGF)-deprived ratExpand
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Citicoline: neuroprotective mechanisms in cerebral ischemia.
Cytidine-5'-diphosphocholine (citicoline or CDP-choline), an intermediate in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho), has shown beneficial effects in a number of CNS injury models andExpand
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Phospholipase A2, hydroxyl radicals, and lipid peroxidation in transient cerebral ischemia.
Phospholipid degradation is an important promoter of neuronal death after transient cerebral ischemia. Phospholipid hydrolysis by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) after transient cerebral ischemia releasesExpand
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CDP-choline significantly restores phosphatidylcholine levels by differentially affecting phospholipase A2 and CTP: phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase after stroke.
Phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) is a major membrane phospholipid, and its loss is sufficient in itself to induce cell death. PtdCho homeostasis is regulated by the balance between hydrolysis andExpand
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