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First multispacecraft ion measurements in and near the Earth's magnetosphere with the identical Cluster ion spectrometry (CIS) experiment
Abstract. On board the four Cluster spacecraft, the Cluster Ion Spectrometry (CIS) experiment measures the full, three-dimensional ion distribution of the major magnetospheric ions (H+, He+, He++,Expand
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RPC-ICA: The Ion Composition Analyzer of the Rosetta Plasma Consortium
The Ion Composition Analyzer (ICA) is part of the Rosetta Plasma Consortium (RPC). ICA is designed to measure the three-dimensional distribution function of positive ions in order to study theExpand
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Aspera/Phobos measurements of the ion outflow from the MARTIAN ionosphere
This report reviews the first results on the ionospheric ion outflow in the Martian magnetosphere by the ion composition experiment ASPERA on Phobos-2. The measurements show that Mars isExpand
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RPC-IES: The Ion and Electron Sensor of the Rosetta Plasma Consortium
The ion and electron sensor (IES) is part of the Rosetta Plasma Consortium (RPC). The IES consists of two electrostatic plasma analyzers, one each for ions and electrons, which share a commonExpand
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IMF By dependence of region 1 Birkeland currents near noon
We have conducted a statistical study of large-scale Birkeland currents, hot plasma, and the By component of the interplanetary magnetic field. Forty-eight Viking orbits from July 19, 1986, toExpand
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Atmospheric and water loss from early Venus
Abstract Previous interpretations of the Pioneer Venus mass spectrometer data of the deuterium to hydrogen ( D / H ) ratio of 1.9 × 10 - 2 or 120 ± 40 times the terrestrial value indicate that VenusExpand
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A Comparative Study of the Influence of the Active Young Sun on the Early Atmospheres of Earth, Venus, and Mars
Abstract Because the solar radiation and particle environment plays a major role in all atmospheric processes such as ionization, dissociation, heating of the upper atmospheres, and thermal andExpand
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Planetary Magnetic Fields and Solar Forcing: Implications for Atmospheric Evolution
Abstract The solar wind and the solar XUV/EUV radiation constitute a permanent forcing of the upper atmosphere of the planets in our solar system, thereby affecting the habitability and chances forExpand
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Source processes in the high-latitude ionosphere
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Stochastic Ion Heating by Orbit Chaotization on Electrostatic Waves and Nonlinear Structures
We demonstrate that satellite observations of intense transverse ion energization could be explained by stochastic ion heating on short perpendicular wavelength electrostatic waves and structuresExpand
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