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Paneth cells as a site of origin for intestinal inflammation
The recognition of autophagy related 16-like 1 (ATG16L1) as a genetic risk factor has exposed the critical role of autophagy in Crohn’s disease. Homozygosity for the highly prevalent ATG16L1 riskExpand
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Dimethylfumarate inhibits microglial and astrocytic inflammation by suppressing the synthesis of nitric oxide, IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6 in an in-vitro model of brain inflammation
BackgroundBrain inflammation plays a central role in multiple sclerosis (MS). Dimethylfumarate (DMF), the main ingredient of an oral formulation of fumaric acid esters with proven therapeuticExpand
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Acute Activation of Oxidative Pentose Phosphate Pathway as First-Line Response to Oxidative Stress in Human Skin Cells.
Integrity of human skin is endangered by exposure to UV irradiation and chemical stressors, which can provoke a toxic production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative damage. Since oxidationExpand
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Activation of microglia by human neuromelanin is NF‐κB‐dependent and involves p38 mitogen‐activated protein kinase: implications for Parkinson's disease
It has been suggested that microglial inflammation augments the progression of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, endogenous factors initiating microglial activation are largely unknown. We thereforeExpand
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c‐Jun N‐terminal kinases (JNKs) mediate pro‐inflammatory actions of microglia
The activation and function of c‐Jun N‐terminal kinases (JNKs) were investigated in primary microglia cultures from neonatal rat brain, which express all three JNK isoforms. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS),Expand
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Erythropoietin and VEGF promote neural outgrowth from retinal explants in postnatal rats.
PURPOSE Recent studies have reported neuroprotective effects of erythropoietin (EPO) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The purpose of the present study was to clarify their influence onExpand
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Modulation of Human T Cell Responses and Macrophage Functions by Onchocystatin, a Secreted Protein of the Filarial Nematode Onchocerca volvulus1
Immune responses of individuals infected with filarial nematodes are characterized by a marked cellular hyporesponsiveness and a shift of the cytokine balance toward a Th2/Th3 response. ThisExpand
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Dissection of the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Transcriptome Using Genome-Wide cDNA Microarrays
Background The differential pathophysiologic mechanisms that trigger and maintain the two forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), Crohn disease (CD), and ulcerative colitis (UC) are only partiallyExpand
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Sulforaphane suppresses LPS-induced inflammation in primary rat microglia
Objective and designThe aim of this study was to investigate the signal transduction pathways involved in sulforaphane (SF) mediated inhibition of the inflammatory response to lipopolysaccharideExpand
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Inflammation in Parkinson's diseases and other neurodegenerative diseases: cause and therapeutic implications.
Agents suppressing microglial activation are attracting attention as candidate drugs for neuroprotection in Parkinson s disease (PD): While different mechanisms including environmental toxins andExpand
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