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Diminished Pupillary Light Reflex at High Irradiances in Melanopsin-Knockout Mice
It is reported that in mice with the melanopsin gene ablated, RGCs retrograde-labeled from the suprachiasmatic nuclei were no longer intrinsically photosensitive, although their number, morphology, and projections were unchanged. Expand
Melanopsin and rod–cone photoreceptive systems account for all major accessory visual functions in mice
The rod–cone and melanopsin systems together seem to provide all of the photic input for these accessory visual functions such as pupillary light reflex and circadian photo-entrainment. Expand
Measuring and using light in the melanopsin age
A new light-measurement strategy taking account of the complex photoreceptive inputs to these non-visual responses is proposed for use by researchers, and simple suggestions for artificial/architectural lighting are provided for regulatory authorities, lighting manufacturers, designers, and engineers. Expand
Characterization of an ocular photopigment capable of driving pupillary constriction in mice
This work demonstrates that transgenic mice lacking both rod and cone photoreceptors (rd/rd cl) retain a pupillary light reflex (PLR) that does not rely on local iris photoreCEPTors, and represents the first functional characterization of a non-rod, non-cone photoreceptive system in the mammalian CNS. Expand
Addition of human melanopsin renders mammalian cells photoresponsive
It is shown that heterologous expression of human melanopsin in a mouse paraneuronal cell line (Neuro-2a) is sufficient to render these cells photoreceptive and that melanopigment functions as a bistable pigment in this system, having an intrinsic photoisomerase regeneration function that is chromatically shifted to longer wavelengths. Expand
Melanopsin cells are the principal conduits for rod–cone input to non-image-forming vision
It is indicated that light signals for irradiance detection are dissociated from pattern vision at the retinal ganglion cell level, and animals that cannot detect light for NIF functions are still capable of image formation. Expand
Regulation of mammalian circadian behavior by non-rod, non-cone, ocular photoreceptors.
Neither rods nor cones are required for photoentrainment, and the murine eye contains additional photoreceptors that regulate the circadian clock. Expand
Neural reprogramming in retinal degeneration.
An instance of human RP provides evidence that rod bipolar cell dendrite switching likely triggers new gene expression patterns and may impair cone pathway function, and Focal cone-sparing can preserve iGluR display by nearby bipolar cells, which may facilitate late RP photoreceptor transplantation attempts. Expand
Distinct Contributions of Rod, Cone, and Melanopsin Photoreceptors to Encoding Irradiance
This work addresses the deficit in individual contribution of each photoreceptor class to irradiance responses using mice expressing human red cone opsin, and reveals an unexpectedly important role for rods in retinal circuitry upstream of mRGCs. Expand
Melanopsin Contributions to Irradiance Coding in the Thalamo-Cortical Visual System
Neurophysiological and anatomical studies identify melanopsin expressing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs) as a major source of information in the mouse visual system.