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Levels of processing: A retrospective commentary on a framework for memory research.
The influence on memory research of levels of processing (Craik & I^ockharl, 1972) is reviewed, and a number of conceptual and empirical criticisms are evaluated. Research since 1972 has enabled the
Levels of processing, transfer-appropriate processing, and the concept of robust encoding
The theoretical status of levels of processing and its relation to the general principle of transfer-appropriate processing is discussed and a modified version of robust encoding is suggested as a possibility.
The bilingual lexicon: Language-specific units in an integrated network
Five experiments were conducted to evaluate hypotheses concerning lexical organization in bilinguals. Previous work has shown that the repetition effect in lexical decision is restricted to
Distributional versus singular approaches to probability and errors in probabilistic reasoning
Four experiments examined differences in probabilistic reasoning as a function of whether problems were presented in a frequentist or case-specific form. The experiments demonstrated that these
Memory and the theory of signal detection.
A recurrent problem in the study of recognition memory has been that of combining hits and false alarms (or correct and incorrect responses) into a single index of performance. That the proportion of
Sedimentary iron–phosphorus cycling under contrasting redox conditions in a eutrophic estuary
Abstract Phosphorus (P) is often a limiting nutrient within freshwater and estuarine systems, thus excess inputs of P from anthropogenic activities (dominantly agriculture) can induce eutrophication