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Ionic liquid‐mediated selective extraction of lignin from wood leading to enhanced enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis
TLDR
The ionic liquid, 1‐ethyl‐3‐methylimidazolium acetate ([Emim][CH3COO]), was used as a pretreatment solvent to extract lignin from wood flour, resulting in a highly concentrated solution of chemically unmodified lign in, which may serve as a valuable source of a polyaromatic material as a value‐added product.
Cellular Binding of Hepatitis C Virus Envelope Glycoprotein E2 Requires Cell Surface Heparan Sulfate*
TLDR
It is demonstrated for the first time that cellular binding of HCV envelope requires E2-HSPG interaction, and docking of E2 to cellular HSPG may be the initial step in the interaction between HCV and the cell surface resulting in receptor-mediated entry and initiation of infection.
Molecular Insights into the Klotho-Dependent, Endocrine Mode of Action of Fibroblast Growth Factor 19 Subfamily Members
TLDR
The crystal structures of FGF19 alone and FGF23 in complex with sucrose octasulfate, a disaccharide chemically related to heparin, are presented, showing that Klotho/βKlotho have evolved as a compensatory mechanism for the poor ability ofHeparin/heparan sulfate to promote binding of F GF19, -21, and -23 to their cognate receptors.
Heparin Structure and Interactions with Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor
TLDR
No significant conformational change in bFGF occurred upon heparin oligosaccharide binding, which suggests that heparIn primarily serves to juxtapose components of the FGF signal transduction pathway.
Differential interactions of heparin and heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans with the selectins. Implications for the use of unfractionated and low molecular weight heparins as therapeutic agents.
TLDR
High-dose unfractionated heparin should be investigated as a treatment option for acute and chronic diseases in which P- and L-selectin play pathological roles, and the current switchover to low-molecular weight heparins may come at some loss of this effect.
Heparin oligosaccharides bind L- and P-selectin and inhibit acute inflammation.
TLDR
Heparin oligosaccharides are effective L- and P-selectin inhibitors in vitro and have anti-inflammatory activity in vivo, and intravenously administered heparin tetrasaccharide diminished influx of neutrophils into the peritoneal cavities of thioglycollate-treated mice.
Heparin-protein interactions.
TLDR
This review focuses on aspects of heparin structure and conformation, which are important for its interactions with proteins, and describes the interaction ofheparin and heparan sulfate with selected families of heParin-binding proteins.
Structural basis by which alternative splicing modulates the organizer activity of FGF8 in the brain.
TLDR
It is shown that the FGF8 mode of receptor binding appeared as early as in nematodes and has been preserved throughout evolution and provided the first biochemical evidence for a physiological F GF8b-FGFR1c interaction during mid-hindbrain development.
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