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Endocrine regulation of menstruation.
A clearer understanding of regulation of normal endometrial function will provide an insight into causes of menstrual dysfunction such as menorrhagia and dysmenorrhea and the development of novel drugs that would target identified aberrations in expression and/or of local uterine factors that are crucial for normal endometricrial function.
The endocrinology of menstruation – a role for the immune system
Withdrawal of progesterone from an oestrogen-progesterone primed endometrium is the initiating event for the cascade of molecular and cellular interactions that result in menstruation, which results in a local increase of inflammatory mediators and the enzymes responsible for tissue breakdown.
Cytokine control in human endometrium.
Although leukaemia inhibitory factor is essential to implantation, the mouse knockout models show that the prostaglandin system is also essential but that there are mutually supportive pathways that compensate for the knockout of many cytokines.
Decidualization of the human endometrial stromal cell: an enigmatic transformation.
Chemokine and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in human endometrium coincides with leukocyte accumulation.
Results from the present study further support the hypothesis that there is a premenstrual migration of leukocytes into the endometrium mediated by chemokines.
Inflammatory mediators and cervical ripening.
- R. Kelly
- Medicine, BiologyJournal of reproductive immunology
- 1 October 2002
Changes in urinary cytokines and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule‐1 (ICAM‐1) in bladder cancer patients after Bacillus Calmette—Guérin (BCG) immunotherapy
- A. Jackson, A. Alexandroff, K. James
- Medicine, BiologyClinical and experimental immunology
- 1 March 1995
Whether monitoring the production of cytokines following therapy may be of prognostic value will be determined in a larger series of patients, as there remains the possibility that detection of the products of an activated immune system may correlate with eventual clinical outcome.
Innate immune defences in the human endometrium
- A. E. King, H. Critchley, R. Kelly
- BiologyReproductive biology and endocrinology : RB&E
- 28 November 2003
The sequential production of natural anti-microbial peptides by the endometrium throughout the menstrual cycle and at other sites in the female genital tract will offer protection from many pathogens, including those that are sexually transmitted.
Progesterone receptor subtype B is differentially regulated in human endometrial stroma.
While both PgR subtypes were present in glands and stroma in the proliferative phase, and both sub types were dramatically reduced in the glands during the secretory phase, PgRA remained as the predominant type in the stroma during thesecretory phase and early pregnancy.
Seminal plasma components stimulate interleukin-8 and interleukin-10 release.
It is suggested that the anti- and pro-inflammatory immune responses which seminal plasma induces might act in combination initially to promote sperm survival and then to facilitate their removal from the female genital tract.