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The protective effects of estrogen on the cardiovascular system.
The incidence of cardiovascular disease differs significantly between men and women, in part because of differences in risk factors and hormones.1 The incidence of atherosclerotic diseases is low inExpand
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Assessment of peripheral vascular endothelial function with finger arterial pulse wave amplitude.
BACKGROUND Abnormalities in pulse wave amplitude (PWA) have been described in subjects with atherosclerosis and may be a marker of future cardiac events. We evaluated the relationship between changesExpand
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Statin-associated myopathy.
Statins (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors) are associated with skeletal muscle complaints, including clinically important myositis and rhabdomyolysis, mild serum creatineExpand
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Estrogen receptor alpha mediates the nongenomic activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase by estrogen.
Estrogen is an important vasoprotective molecule that causes the rapid dilation of blood vessels by activating endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) through an unknown mechanism. In studies ofExpand
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A transcriptionally active DNA-binding site for human p53 protein complexes.
Recent studies have demonstrated transcriptional activation domains within the tumor suppressor protein p53, while others have described specific DNA-binding sites for p53, implying that the proteinExpand
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Postmenopausal hormone therapy: an Endocrine Society scientific statement.
OBJECTIVE Our objective was to provide a scholarly review of the published literature on menopausal hormonal therapy (MHT), make scientifically valid assessments of the available data, and grade theExpand
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Regulator of G-protein signaling-2 mediates vascular smooth muscle relaxation and blood pressure
Nitric oxide (NO) inhibits vascular contraction by activating cGMP-dependent protein kinase I-α (PKGI-α), which causes dephosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC) and vascular smooth muscleExpand
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Molecular and Cellular Basis of Cardiovascular Gender Differences
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), the major cause of morbidity and mortality for both men and women, occur uncommonly in premenopausal women, but their incidence rises sharply after the menopausalExpand
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Abnormal Vascular Function and Hypertension in Mice Deficient in Estrogen Receptor β
Blood vessels express estrogen receptors, but their role in cardiovascular physiology is not well understood. We show that vascular smooth muscle cells and blood vessels from estrogen receptor βExpand
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17&bgr;-Estradiol Reduces Cardiomyocyte Apoptosis In Vivo and In Vitro via Activation of Phospho-Inositide-3 Kinase/Akt Signaling
Female gender and estrogen-replacement therapy in postmenopausal women are associated with improved heart failure survival, and physiological replacement of 17&bgr;-estradiol (E2) reduces infarctExpand
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