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Replicon-helper systems from attenuated Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus: expression of heterologous genes in vitro and immunization against heterologous pathogens in vivo.
The VEE replicon system was characterized by high-level expression of heterologous genes in cultured cells, little or no regeneration of plaque-forming virus particles, the capability for sequential immunization to multiple pathogens in the same host, and induction of protective immunity against a mucosal pathogen.
Adaptation of Sindbis Virus to BHK Cells Selects for Use of Heparan Sulfate as an Attachment Receptor
The results suggest that TR339, the most virulent virus tested, attaches to cells through a low-affinity, primarily HS-independent mechanism and adaptive mutations, selected during cell culture growth of Sindbis virus, enhance binding and infectivity by allowing the virus to attach by an alternative mechanism that is dependent on the presence of cell surface HS.
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Papain-Like Protease Ubiquitin-Like Domain and Catalytic Domain Regulate Antagonism of IRF3 and NF-κB Signaling
This study focuses on the SARS-CoV papain-like protease (PLP), which engages and antagonizes the IFN induction and NF-κB signaling pathways, and shows that the ubiquitin-like domain of PLP is necessary for pathway antagonism but not sufficient by itself to block these pathways regardless of the enzymatic activity of the protease.
Mutations in the E2 glycoprotein of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus confer heparan sulfate interaction, low morbidity, and rapid clearance from blood of mice.
It is proposed that one mechanism of attenuation is rapid viral clearance in vivo due to binding of the virus to ubiquitous heparan sulfate.
The nucleotide sequence of the coding region of tobacco etch virus genomic RNA: evidence for the synthesis of a single polyprotein.
Alpha/Beta Interferon Protects Adult Mice from Fatal Sindbis Virus Infection and Is an Important Determinant of Cell and Tissue Tropism
- K. Ryman, W. Klimstra, K. Nguyen, C. Biron, R. Johnston
- Biology, MedicineJournal of Virology
- 1 April 2000
IFN-α/β protects the normal adult host from viral infection by rapidly conferring an antiviral state on otherwise permissive cell types, both locally and systemically.
Role of Alpha/Beta Interferon in Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Pathogenesis: Effect of an Attenuating Mutation in the 5′ Untranslated Region
The mutant V3043 virus was more sensitive than V3000 to the antiviral actions of IFN-α/β in two separate in vitro assays, suggesting that the increased sensitivity toIFN- α/β plays a major role in the in vivo attenuation of V30 43.
Role of Dendritic Cell Targeting in Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Pathogenesis
A point mutation in the E2 glycoprotein gene of VEE that renders the virus avirulent and compromises its ability to spread beyond the draining lymph blocked the appearance of virally infected dendritic cells in the lymph node in vivo.
In vitro synthesis of infectious venezuelan equine encephalitis virus RNA from a cDNA clone: analysis of a viable deletion mutant.
Synthetic recombinant bat SARS-like coronavirus is infectious in cultured cells and in mice
- M. M. Becker, Rachel L. Graham, M. Denison
- BiologyProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
- 16 December 2008
The design, synthesis, and recovery of the largest synthetic replicating life form, a 29.7-kb bat severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-like coronavirus (Bat-SCoV), a likely progenitor to the SARS-CoV epidemic is reported.