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Animal models of 'anxiety': where next?
  • R. J. Rodgers
  • Psychology, Biology
    Behavioural pharmacology
  • 1 November 1997
It is concluded that a focus on defensive behaviour patterns improves test validity (predictive/face/construct), offers a more rational basis for test selection in drug development programmes, and provides a firmer theoretical framework for future methodological and therapeutic advance.
Animal models of anxiety: an ethological perspective.
A fresh approach to an established test has revealed a hitherto unrecognized multidimensionality to plus-maze behaviour and, as it yields comprehensive behavioural profiles, has many advantages over conventional methodology.
Anxiogenic‐like effects of fluprazine and eltoprazine in the mouse elevated plus‐maze: profile comparisons with 8‐OH-DPAT, CGS 12066B, TFMPP and mCPP1
The profiles of fluprazine and eltoprazine on plus-maze behaviour were not only similar to one another but, on most parameters, were also remarkably like those observed with TFMPP and mCPP.
Anxiogenic profile of AM-251, a selective cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist, in plus-maze-naïve and plus-maze-experienced mice
It is confirmed that prior maze experience per se significantly increases behavioural indices of anxiety without altering measures of general activity, and the pattern of behavioural change in maze-experienced mice would also be consistent with an anxiogenic-like action of AM-251.
Risk assessment in animal models of anxiety
Analysis of the pattern of defensive behaviours in semi-natural situations suggests a long-duration process in which high level freezing/movement arrest gradually gives way to active risk assessment
Acute nicotine increases both impulsive choice and behavioural disinhibition in rats
Findings support the hypothesis that heightened impulsivity in smokers may in part be a consequence of the direct acute effects of nicotine, and drug-induced changes in impulsivity may play a critical role in the transition to and maintenance of nicotine dependence.
Absence of anxiolytic response to chlordiazepoxide in two common background strains exposed to the elevated plus‐maze: importance and implications of behavioural baseline
Although the absence of an anxiolytic response to CDP in C57 mice may be attributed to their low basal anxiety levels, the profile of 129 mice strongly suggests an abnormality in benzodiazepine/GABAA receptor function.
Influence of prior maze experience on behaviour and response to diazepam in the elevated plus-maze and light/dark tests of anxiety in mice
Results show that, in both tests, diazepam reduced behavioural indices of anxiety in maze-naive mice only, and interpretation of this apparent loss of diazepAM efficacy is at least partially confounded by the observation that maze experience altered baseline behaviour in both procedures.
Pharmacological and neural control of anti-predator defense in the rat
This analysis suggests that a variety of specific defenses, such as flight, movement arrest, and defensive threat and attack, are most characteristic of fear to a present, discrete, threat stimulus while risk assessment patterns coupled with the inhibition of nondefensive behavior are the central features of anxiety to potential threat.