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Direct and ecological costs of resistance to herbivory
Herbivores can consume significant amounts of plant biomass in many environments. Yet plants are not defenseless against such attack. Although defenses might benefit plants in the presence ofExpand
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Nectar Robbing: Ecological and Evolutionary Perspectives
Not all floral visitors attracted to flowers are pollinators. Instead, some visitors circumvent the floral opening, usually removing nectar without contacting the anthers and/or stigma. Here weExpand
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Florivory: the intersection of pollination and herbivory.
Plants interact with many visitors who consume a variety of plant tissues. While the consequences of herbivory to leaves and shoots are well known, the implications of florivory, the consumption ofExpand
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Ecological and Evolutionary Consequences of Multispecies Plant-Animal Interactions
▪ Abstract Ecologists and evolutionary biologists are broadly interested in how the interactions among organisms influence their abundance, distribution, phenotypes, and genotypic composition.Expand
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Linking economic activities to the distribution of exotic plants.
  • B. Taylor, R. Irwin
  • Medicine, Geography
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences…
  • 21 December 2004
The human enterprise is flooding Earth's ecosystems with exotic species. Human population size is often correlated with species introductions, whereas more proximate mechanisms, such as economicExpand
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Optimal defence theory and flower petal colour predict variation in the secondary chemistry of wild radish
Summary 1The presence, concentration and composition of plant secondary compounds, which confer plant resistance to herbivores and pathogens, vary greatly both within and among individuals. OptimalExpand
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TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL VARIATION IN POLLINATION OF A MONTANE HERB: A SEVEN-YEAR STUDY
Pollination by animals is critical to sexual reproduction of most angiosperms. However, little is known about variation in pollination service to single plant species. We report results of aExpand
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Arranging the bouquet of disease: floral traits and the transmission of plant and animal pathogens.
Several floral microbes are known to be pathogenic to plants or floral visitors such as pollinators. Despite the ecological and economic importance of pathogens deposited in flowers, we often lack aExpand
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The impact of floral larceny on individuals, populations, and communities
Many insects and other animals that visit flowers are not mutualistic pollinators, but rather "behavioral robbers" which pierce flowers to extract nectar, and "thieves" which enter flowers in theExpand
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The Consequences of Direct versus Indirect Species Interactions to Selection on Traits: Pollination and Nectar Robbing in Ipomopsis aggregata
  • R. Irwin
  • Biology, Medicine
  • The American Naturalist
  • 30 January 2005
Organisms experience a complex suite of species interactions. Although the ecological consequences of direct versus indirect species interactions have received attention, their evolutionaryExpand
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