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Phylogeny of Gastrotricha: a morphology-based framework of gastrotrich relationships.
TLDR
The first cladistic analysis of nearly all known gastrotrich genera using 71 morphological characters suggests that the Gastrotricha is a monophyletic group with its most primitive taxa distributed among the families Dactylopodolidae and Neodasyidae.
Macrodasyida (Gastrotricha): a cladistic analysis of morphology
TLDR
Outgroup analysis indicated that the order Macrodasyida (Gastrotricha) is monophyletic and that it is defined by the structure of the pharynx and the complex distribution of duo-gland adhesive organs.
The musculature of Draculiciteria tessalata (Chaetonotida, Paucitubulatina): implications for the evolution of dorsoventral muscles in Gastrotricha
TLDR
A hypothesis on the evolution of dor soventral muscles in D. tessalata is proposed which includes a splitting of circular muscles into separate somatic and splanchnic components with a further displacement of both muscle sets into a dorsoventral orientation.
Musculature of the primitive gastrotrich Neodasys (Chaetonotida): functional adaptations to the interstitial environment and phylogenetic significance
TLDR
Results suggest that reductions in midgut musculature may be functionally related to oviposition and, as such, are probably not homologous with similar reductions of circular muscles in other species of Chaetonotida.
Functional morphology of the muscles in Philodina sp. (Rotifera: Bdelloidea)
Whole-mounts of Philodina sp., a bdelloid rotifer, were stained with fluorescent-labeled phalloidin to visualize the musculature. Several different muscle types were identified including incomplete
The muscular system of Dactylopodola baltica and other macrodasyidan gastrotrichs in a functional and phylogenetic perspective
TLDR
The overall arrangement of the muscular system of D. baltica showed several similarities to other macrodasyidan gastrotrichs, including the presence and location of circular, helicoidal and longitudinal muscles, their orientation with respect to the longitudinal body axis and their points of insertion.
Topology of the nervous system of Notommata copeus (Rotifera: Monogononta) revealed with anti-FMRFamide, -SCPb, and -serotonin (5-HT) immunohistochemistry
TLDR
The utility of 3D visualization software is highlighted to gain further insights into the organization and architecture of the rotifer cerebral ganglion and to highlight similarities with other monogonont rotifers.
Functional morphology of muscles in Tetranchyroderma papii (Gastrotricha)
Abstract Movement in gastrotrichs is powered by an interaction of ventral cilia and muscles. In interstitial gastrotrichs, movement among sand grains often requires the additional use of adhesive
A muscular double helix in Gastrotricha
TLDR
The proposed functions of helicoidal muscles include antagonization of radial dilations of the digestive tract during feeding, pressurization of the intestine and closure of the pharyngeal-intestinal valve in chaetonotidans, and prevention of intestinal kinking during changes in body shape.
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