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Remapping the insulin gene/IDDM2 locus in type 1 diabetes.
TLDR
Mapping results using robust regression methods show how precisely a variant for a common disease can be mapped, even within a region of strong LD, and specifically that IDDM2 maps to one or more of three common variants in a approximately 2-kb region of chromosome 11p15.
The cell cycle control gene ZAC/PLAGL1 is imprinted--a strong candidate gene for transient neonatal diabetes.
We describe a screen for new imprinted human genes, and the identification in this way of ZAC (zinc finger protein which regulates apoptosis and cell cycle arrest)/ PLAGL1 (pleomorphicadenoma of the
HLA DR-DQ-encoded genetic determinants of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes in Finland: an analysis of 622 nuclear families.
TLDR
The diabetes predisposing effect of HLA genes is defined by a complex interaction of various haplotypes and comparison of the findings indicates a significant disease-specific heterogeneity of the (DR8)-DQB1*04, (DR7)-DQA1*0201-D QB1*02 and (DR3)-D QA1-05-DQB 1*02 haplotypes.
Temporal changes in the frequencies of HLA genotypes in patients with Type 1 diabetes—indication of an increased environmental pressure?
TLDR
The data suggest that the need for genetic susceptibility to develop Type 1 diabetes has decreased over time due to an increasing environmental pressure and this results in a higher disease progression rate especially in subjects with protective HLA genotypes.
Relative predispositional effects of HLA class II DRB1-DQB1 haplotypes and genotypes on type 1 diabetes: a meta-analysis.
TLDR
The results show that meta-analyses and use of the P/C ratio and rankings thereof can be valuable in determining T1D risk factors at the haplotype and amino acid residue levels.
Lymphoid tyrosine phosphatase (LYP/PTPN22) Arg620Trp variant regulates insulin autoimmunity and progression to type 1 diabetes
TLDR
In the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes the underlying mechanism of the PTPN22 C1858T polymorphism appears to involve regulation of insulin-specific autoimmunity, which strongly affects progression from prediabetes to clinical disease.
Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms: no association with type 1 diabetes in the Finnish population.
TLDR
It is concluded that the single nucleotide polymorphisms analysed are unlikely to be associated with type 1 diabetes in the Finnish population.
Relationship between the incidence of type 1 diabetes and maternal enterovirus antibodies: time trends and geographical variation
TLDR
These findings are in line with previous observations supporting the hypothesis that a low frequency of enterovirus infection in the background population increases the susceptibility of young children to the diabetogenic effect of entersoviruses.
The effect of HLA class II, insulin and CTLA4 gene regions on the development of humoral beta cell autoimmunity
TLDR
The INS and the DRB1 loci appear to contribute to the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes by initiating/modifying insulin-specific autoimmunity in young children, in whom the appearance of GADA and IA–2A is linked to IAA.
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