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Optimal determination of particle orientation, absolute hand, and contrast loss in single-particle electron cryomicroscopy.
A computational procedure is described for assigning the absolute hand of the structure of a protein or assembly determined by single-particle electron microscopy. The procedure requires a pair ofExpand
Model for the structure of bacteriorhodopsin based on high-resolution electron cryo-microscopy.
The light-driven proton pump bacteriorhodopsin occurs naturally as two-dimensional crystals. A three-dimensional density map of the structure, at near-atomic resolution, has been obtained by studyingExpand
High-resolution noise substitution to measure overfitting and validate resolution in 3D structure determination by single particle electron cryomicroscopy☆
Three-dimensional (3D) structure determination by single particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM) involves the calculation of an initial 3D model, followed by extensive iterative improvement of theExpand
The potential and limitations of neutrons, electrons and X-rays for atomic resolution microscopy of unstained biological molecules.
  • R. Henderson
  • Chemistry, Medicine
  • Quarterly reviews of biophysics
  • 1 May 1995
Radiation damage is the main problem which prevents the determination of the structure of a single biological macromolecule at atomic resolution using any kind of microscopy. This is true whetherExpand
Electron-crystallographic refinement of the structure of bacteriorhodopsin.
Using electron diffraction data corrected for diffuse scattering together with additional phase information from 30 new images of tilted specimens, an improved experimental density map has beenExpand
MRC image processing programs.
Digital image processing is an essential step in the determination of macromolecular structures by electron microscopy. Expand
Cryo-protection of protein crystals against radiation damage in electron and X-ray diffraction
  • R. Henderson
  • Materials Science
  • Proceedings of the Royal Society of London…
  • 23 July 1990
By using the fading of electron diffraction patterns during electron irradiation of protein or other organic crystals as a benchmark to measure destruction of the crystalline atomic arrangement byExpand
Three-dimensional model of purple membrane obtained by electron microscopy
A 7-Å resolution map of the purple membrane has been obtained by electron microscopy of tilted, unstained specimens. The protein in the membrane contains seven, closely packed, α-helical segmentsExpand
Molecular mechanism of vectorial proton translocation by bacteriorhodopsin
Bacteriorhodopsin, a membrane protein with a relative molecular mass of 27,000, is a light driven pump which transports protons across the cell membrane of the halophilic organism HalobacteriumExpand
Structure of purple membrane from halobacterium halobium: recording, measurement and evaluation of electron micrographs at 3.5 Å resolution
Abstract Electron micrographs of the purple membrane have been recorded using liquid nitrogen and liquid helium cooling on three cryoelectron microscopes. The best micrographs show opticalExpand