Chemical and physical properties and potential mechanisms: melatonin as a broad spectrum antioxidant and free radical scavenger.
- D. Tan, R. Reiter, R. Hardeland
- Biology, ChemistryCurrent Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
- 31 January 2002
Under in vivo conditions, melatonin is often several times more potent than vitamin C and E in protecting tissues from oxidative injury when compared at an equivalent dosage (micromol/kg).
Antioxidative protection by melatonin: multiplicity of mechanisms from radical detoxification to radical avoidance.
- R. Hardeland
- Biology, ChemistryEndocrine
- 1 July 2005
Recent investigations on mitochondrial metabolism indicate that melatonin as well as AMK are capable of supporting the electron flux through the respiratory chain, of preventing the breakdown of the mitochondrial membrane potential, and of decreasing electron leakage, thereby reducing the formation of superoxide anions.
Melatonin—A pleiotropic, orchestrating regulator molecule
Melatonin: Signaling mechanisms of a pleiotropic agent
- R. Hardeland
- 1 March 2009
Melatonin acts both as a hormone of the pineal gland and as a local regulator molecule in various tissues, and cross‐talks between different signaling pathways, including influences of the membrane receptors on nuclear binding sites, are discussed.
Melatonin and inflammation—Story of a double‐edged blade
- R. Hardeland
- BiologyJournal of Pineal Research
- 12 October 2018
A particular role in melatonin's actions seems to be associated with the upregulation of sirtuin‐1 (SIRT1), which shares various effects known from melatonin and additionally interferes with the signaling by the mechanistic target of rapamycin and Notch, and reduces the expression of the proinflammatory lncRNA‐CCL2.
Kynuramines, metabolites of melatonin and other indoles: the resurrection of an almost forgotten class of biogenic amines
K is of special interest due to its properties as a potent cyclooxygenase inhibitor, NO scavenger forming a stable nitrosation product, inhibitor and/or downregulator of neuronal and inducible NO synthases, and a mitochondrial metabolism modulator.
Functional roles of melatonin in plants, and perspectives in nutritional and agricultural science.
Evidence indicates that melatonin has an ability to increase the production of crops and may involve the roles of melatonin in preservation of chlorophyll, promotion of photosynthesis, and stimulation of root development.
Circadian Rhythms, Oxidative Stress, and Antioxidative Defense Mechanisms
A general effect of oxidative stress may consist in declines of easily oxidizable signaling molecules such as melatonin, and this can have consequences on the circadian intraorganismal organization and expression of overt rhythms.
Melatonin Antioxidative Defense: Therapeutical Implications for Aging and Neurodegenerative Processes
Melatonin’s efficacy in combating free radical damage in the brain suggests that it can be a valuable therapeutic agent in the treatment of cerebral edema following traumatic brain injury or stroke.