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Chemical and physical properties and potential mechanisms: melatonin as a broad spectrum antioxidant and free radical scavenger.
Under in vivo conditions, melatonin is often several times more potent than vitamin C and E in protecting tissues from oxidative injury when compared at an equivalent dosage (micromol/kg). Expand
Antioxidative protection by melatonin: multiplicity of mechanisms from radical detoxification to radical avoidance.
Recent investigations on mitochondrial metabolism indicate that melatonin as well as AMK are capable of supporting the electron flux through the respiratory chain, of preventing the breakdown of the mitochondrial membrane potential, and of decreasing electron leakage, thereby reducing the formation of superoxide anions. Expand
Melatonin—A pleiotropic, orchestrating regulator molecule
Control of electron flux, prevention of bottlenecks in the respiratory chain and electron leakage contribute to the avoidance of damage by free radicals and seem to be important in neuroprotection, inflammatory diseases and, presumably, aging. Expand
Functional roles of melatonin in plants, and perspectives in nutritional and agricultural science.
Evidence indicates that melatonin has an ability to increase the production of crops and may involve the roles of melatonin in preservation of chlorophyll, promotion of photosynthesis, and stimulation of root development. Expand
Melatonin: Signaling mechanisms of a pleiotropic agent
Melatonin acts both as a hormone of the pineal gland and as a local regulator molecule in various tissues, and cross‐talks between different signaling pathways, including influences of the membrane receptors on nuclear binding sites, are discussed. Expand
Kynuramines, metabolites of melatonin and other indoles: the resurrection of an almost forgotten class of biogenic amines
K is of special interest due to its properties as a potent cyclooxygenase inhibitor, NO scavenger forming a stable nitrosation product, inhibitor and/or downregulator of neuronal and inducible NO synthases, and a mitochondrial metabolism modulator. Expand
Circadian Rhythms, Oxidative Stress, and Antioxidative Defense Mechanisms
A general effect of oxidative stress may consist in declines of easily oxidizable signaling molecules such as melatonin, and this can have consequences on the circadian intraorganismal organization and expression of overt rhythms. Expand
Anti-inflammatory actions of melatonin and its metabolites, N1-acetyl-N2-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AFMK) and N1-acetyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AMK), in macrophages
The present work suggests melatonin and its metabolites as a new class of potential anti-inflammatory agents without the classical side effects due to COX-1 inhibition, andCOX-2 and iNOS as molecular targets for either melatonin or its metabolites AFMK and AMK. Expand
Melatonin Antioxidative Defense: Therapeutical Implications for Aging and Neurodegenerative Processes
Melatonin’s efficacy in combating free radical damage in the brain suggests that it can be a valuable therapeutic agent in the treatment of cerebral edema following traumatic brain injury or stroke. Expand
Melatonin, hormone of darkness and more – occurrence, control mechanisms, actions and bioactive metabolites
  • R. Hardeland
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences
  • 17 March 2008
Melatonin is not only a hormone but is also synthesized in numerous extrapineal sites, in which it sometimes attains much higher quantities than in the pineal and the circulation, and is a source of bioactive metabolites, such as 5-methoxytryptamine, N1-acetyl-N2-formyl-5- methoxykynuramine and N1.methoxyKynuramines. Expand