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Gonadal Steroid Hormone Receptors and Sex Differences in the Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis
TLDR
The results of a variety of studies suggest that gonadal steroid hormones, particularly testosterone, modulate HPA activity in an attempt to prevent the deleterious effects of HPA activation on reproductive function.
Novel actions of estrogen receptor-beta on anxiety-related behaviors.
TLDR
It is suggested that the anxiolytic properties of estrogens are ERbeta mediated, and the nonselective ER antagonist tamoxifen blocked the previously identified anxiogenic actions of DPN.
S-equol, a potent ligand for estrogen receptor beta, is the exclusive enantiomeric form of the soy isoflavone metabolite produced by human intestinal bacterial flora.
TLDR
Humans have acquired an ability to exclusively synthesize S-equol from the precursor soy isoflavone daidzein, and it is significant that this enantiomer has a relatively high affinity for estrogen receptor beta.
Novel Actions of Estrogen Receptor-β on Anxiety-Related Behaviors
TLDR
It is suggested that the anxiolytic properties of estrogens are ERbeta mediated, and the nonselective ER antagonist tamoxifen blocked the previously identified anxiogenic actions of DPN.
The Androgen 5α-Dihydrotestosterone and Its Metabolite 5α-Androstan-3β, 17β-Diol Inhibit the Hypothalamo–Pituitary–Adrenal Response to Stress by Acting through Estrogen Receptor β-Expressing Neurons
TLDR
It is indicated that the inhibitory effects of DHT on HPA axis activity may be in part mediated via its conversion to 3β-diol and subsequent binding to ERβ.
Non-genomic actions of androgens
Estrogen Regulates the Development of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor mRNA and Protein in the Rat Hippocampus
TLDR
Results suggest that a direct interaction may exist between ERα and BDNF to alter hippocampal physiology during development in the rat.
Distribution and hormonal regulation of androgen receptor (AR) and AR messenger ribonucleic acid in the rat hippocampus.
TLDR
Data demonstrate that hippocampal cells containing AR can respond to circulating androgen to alter AR gene expression and AR mRNA autoregulation appears to be both age and tissue specific and does not directly follow the regulatory patterns described for other steroid hormone receptors found in the hippocampus.
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