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Cryopreservation of mammalian sperm: what we ask them to survive.
These concepts of membrane structure and the relationship of membrane composition to water and cryoprotectant movement are reviewed and reintroduced in the context of the established and successful protocol for freezing bull sperm to illustrate the molecular responses that may be necessary to survive a freeze-thaw cycle.
Analysis of sperm cell viability, acrosomal integrity, and mitochondrial function using flow cytometry.
Mitochondrial function, measured by rhodamine 123 (R123) fluorescence, was depressed by the mitochondrial inhibitors rotenone (64%) or monensin (52%), establishing that mitochondrial damage can be detected.
Flow cytometric analysis of transmembrane phospholipid movement in bull sperm.
A simple model of NBD-phospholipid equilibria was developed and fit to the kinetic data and reflected major features of the experimental data and provide a potential tool for predicting the dynamics of endogenous lipids.
The epididymis and sperm maturation: a perspective.
In common mammals, sperm leaving the testis are incapable of fertilizing a female gamete, and when assessing sperm maturation it is necessary to establish the proportion of sperm that has completed and retained all steps of maturation necessary to achieve fertilization of oocytes under the conditions imposed.
Cryopreservation of poultry sperm: the enigma of glycerol.
The potential value of using available genetic models (lines of roosters differing in the capacity of their sperm to survive a freeze-thaw cycle) to clarify and overcome damage to poultry sperm induced by cryopreservation are discussed.
A practical in vitro sperm-egg binding assay that detects subfertile males.
Use of this assay to cull males whose semen appears normal by traditional modes of analysis but differs in the obligatory trait of sperm-egg binding could be of value to avoid expensive progeny testing.
In vitro evaluation of sperm quality: an opinion.
Regulation of membrane stability and the acrosome reaction in mammalian sperm
A mechanistic model in which the sperm membrane contains destabilizing components to confer fusogenic potential as well as stabilizing components organized to maximize membrane integrity prevents premature fusion in the male tract is summarized.
Development changes occurring in the lipids of ram epididymal spermatozoa plasma membrane.
Ram spermatozoa were obtained from different regions of the epididymis and their plasma membrane was removed using a nitrogen cavitation treatment and the molar ratio of cholesterol to phospholipid increased in the plasma membrane during maturation.
A comparison of critical osmolality and hydraulic conductivity and its activation energy in fowl and bull spermatozoa.
Water permeability, or hydraulic conductivity, of the plasma membrane and its activation energy for each species is computed and the relevance of these findings to cryopreservation of spermatozoa is considered.