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Origin of the West Nile virus responsible for an outbreak of encephalitis in the northeastern United States.
In late summer 1999, an outbreak of human encephalitis occurred in the northeastern United States that was concurrent with extensive mortality in crows (Corvus species) as well as the deaths ofExpand
A highly structured, nuclease-resistant, noncoding RNA produced by flaviviruses is required for pathogenicity.
It is reported that members of the genus Flavivirus, a large group of medically important encephalitic RNA viruses, produce a unique and highly structured noncoding RNA of 0.3-0.5 kb derived from the 3' untranslated region of the viral genome. Expand
NS1′ of Flaviviruses in the Japanese Encephalitis Virus Serogroup Is a Product of Ribosomal Frameshifting and Plays a Role in Viral Neuroinvasiveness
Experimental evidence is provided that NS1′ is the product of a −1 ribosomal frameshift event that occurs at a conserved slippery heptanucleotide motif located near the beginning of the NS2A gene and is stimulated by a downstream RNA pseudoknot structure. Expand
The relationships between West Nile and Kunjin viruses.
It is suggested that KUN and WN viruses comprise a group of closely related viruses that can be differentiated into subgroups on the basis of genetic and antigenic analyses. Expand
A New Insect-Specific Flavivirus from Northern Australia Suppresses Replication of West Nile Virus and Murray Valley Encephalitis Virus in Co-infected Mosquito Cells
It is demonstrated that prior infection of cultured mosquito cells with PCV suppressed subsequent replication of the medically significant West Nile and Murray Valley encephalitis viruses by 10–43 fold, suggesting that superinfection exclusion can occur between ISFs and vertebrate-infecting flaviviruses despite their high level of genetic diversity. Expand
Immunodominant epitopes on the NS1 protein of MVE and KUN viruses serve as targets for a blocking ELISA to detect virus-specific antibodies in sentinel animal serum.
These assays were able to detect serum antibodies to a variety of flavivirus in laboratory infected rabbits, and naturally infected chickens and in the case of primary infections, differentiate those caused by KUN or MVE. Expand
A Single Amino Acid Substitution in the West Nile Virus Nonstructural Protein NS2A Disables Its Ability To Inhibit Alpha/Beta Interferon Induction and Attenuates Virus Virulence in Mice
The results confirm and extend the previous original findings on the role of the flavivirus NS2A protein in inhibition of a host antiviral response and demonstrate that the targeted disabling of a viral mechanism for evading the IFN response can be applied to the development of live attenuated flaviv virus vaccine candidates. Expand
Arboviruses causing human disease in the Australasian zoogeographic region
Recent epidemiological and clinical results pertaining to these viruses are reviewed, with major emphasis on MVE and RR viruses. Expand
Epitope-Blocking Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays for the Detection of Serum Antibodies to West Nile Virus in Multiple Avian Species
ABSTRACT We report the development of epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the rapid detection of serum antibodies to West Nile virus (WNV) in taxonomically diverse NorthExpand
Molecular characterization of the Japanese encephalitis serocomplex of the flavivirus genus.
The resultant phylogenetic data were consistent with some of the current flavivirus serological classification, showing a close relationship between ALF and MVE viruses and between KOK and STR viruses, but suggested that Kok and STR are distantly related to the other viruses and should perhaps be reclassified in their own serocomplex. Expand