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Vertical structure of recent Arctic warming
Near-surface warming in the Arctic has been almost twice as large as the global average over recent decades—a phenomenon that is known as the ‘Arctic amplification’. The underlying causes of thisExpand
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Polar amplification in a coupled climate model with locked albedo
In recent years, a substantial reduction of the sea ice in the Arctic has been observed. At the same time, the near-surface air in this region is warming at a rate almost twice as large as the globalExpand
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Magnitude of extreme heat waves in present climate and their projection in a warming world
An extreme heat wave occurred in Russia in the summer of 2010. It had serious impacts on humans and natural ecosystems, it was the strongest recorded globally in recent decades and exceeded inExpand
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The vertical structure of the lower Arctic troposphere analysed from observations and the ERA‐40 reanalysis
In situ atmospheric observations in the central Arctic are few and mostly from near the surface. A majorityare from coastal regions whereas soundings over the Arctic Ocean are rare. This limits ourExpand
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Springtime atmospheric energy transport and the control of Arctic summer sea-ice extent
The summer sea-ice extent in the Arctic has decreased in recent decades, a feature that has become one of the most distinct signals of the continuing climate change. However, the interannual variabExpand
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Melt onset over Arctic sea ice controlled by atmospheric moisture transport
The timing of melt onset affects the surface energy uptake throughout the melt season. Yet the processes triggering melt and causing its large interannual variability are not well understood. Here ...
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Arctic amplification enhanced by latent energy transport of atmospheric planetary waves
The atmospheric northward energy transport plays a crucial role for the Arctic climate; this transport brings to the Arctic an amount of energy comparable to that provided directly by the sun. The ...
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Climate feedback efficiency and synergy
Earth’s climate sensitivity to radiative forcing induced by a doubling of the atmospheric CO2 is determined by feedback mechanisms, including changes in atmospheric water vapor, clouds and surfaceExpand
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Greenland’s contribution to global sea-level rise by the end of the 21st century
The Greenland ice sheet holds enough water to raise the global sea level with ∼7 m. Over the last few decades, observations manifest a substantial increase of the mass loss of this ice sheet. BothExpand
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