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What Happened to the Streptococci: Overview of Taxonomic and Nomenclature Changes
  • R. Facklam
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Clinical Microbiology Reviews
  • 1 October 2002
The Lancefield grouping system cannot be used in itself for accurate identification of specific beta-hemolytic species, but it can be a useful part of the identification procedure. Expand
Decline in invasive pneumococcal disease after the introduction of protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccine.
The use of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is preventing disease in young children, for whom the vaccine is indicated, and may be reducing the rate of disease in adults. Expand
Identification of Enterococcus species isolated from human infections by a conventional test scheme.
Streptococci (206 cultures) previously identified as enterococci were retrieved from storage and reidentified by using tests designed to identify species of the genus Enterococcus by using DNA-DNA hybridizations to assure correct identification. Expand
Identification, classification, and clinical relevance of catalase-negative, gram-positive cocci, excluding the streptococci and enterococci.
The clinical relevance and the experience with the various genera and species are reviewed and discussed, and the procedures useful for clinical laboratories to aid in their identification are described. Expand
Bacterial meningitis in the United States, 1986: report of a multistate surveillance study. The Bacterial Meningitis Study Group.
A prospective, laboratory-based surveillance project obtained accurate data on meningitis in a population of 34 million people during 1986, suggesting that improvements in early detection and antibiotic treatment may have occurred since that time. Expand
Evaluation and Improvement of Real-Time PCR Assays Targeting lytA, ply, and psaA Genes for Detection of Pneumococcal DNA
Three novel real-time PCR assays designed for the detection of specific sequence regions of the lytA, ply, and psaA genes were developed and should be considered the assays of choice for the Detection of pneumococcal DNA, particularly when upper respiratory P-LVS might be present in the clinical specimen. Expand
Sequencing emm-specific PCR products for routine and accurate typing of group A streptococci.
The study involved 95 M type reference GAS strains and a survey of 74 recent clinical isolates to accurately deduce emm types corresponding to the majority of the known group A streptococcal (GAS) M serotypes. Expand
Epidemiology of invasive group a streptococcus disease in the United States, 1995-1999.
It is estimated that 9600-9700 cases of invasive GAS disease occur in the United States each year, resulting in 1100-1300 deaths, and older age; presence of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, meningitis, or pneumonia; and infection with emm1 or emm3 were all independent predictors of death. Expand
Accuracy of Phenotypic and Genotypic Testing for Identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Description of Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae sp. nov
An unusual group of viridans group streptococci that resemble Streptococcus pneumoniae is identified, and a combination of phenotypic and genetic reactions allows its identification. Expand
Changing epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease among older adults in the era of pediatric pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.
The findings indicate that use of conjugate vaccine in children has substantially benefited older adults, and persons with certain comorbid conditions may benefit less than healthier persons from the indirect effects of the new vaccine. Expand