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Resurgence of previously reinforced behavior during extinction.
Pigeon's pecks on one of two keys were reinforced with food and then extinguish­ ed over one or more sessions. In a test session, an alternative response was reinforc­ ed 20 times and then allExpand
Extinction-Induced Resurgence: Preliminary Investigations And Possible Applications
When recently reinforced behavior is no longer effective, previously reinforced behavior often recurs. Though the phenomenon has been described from time to time in both the experimental and clinicalExpand
The search engine manipulation effect (SEME) and its possible impact on the outcomes of elections
It is shown that biased search rankings can shift the voting preferences of undecided voters by 20% or more, the shift can be much higher in some demographic groups, and such rankings can be masked so that people show no awareness of the manipulation. Expand
‘Insight’ in the pigeon: antecedents and determinants of an intelligent performance
Pigeons that had acquired relevant skills solved the problem in a remarkably chimpanzee-like (and, perforce, human-like) fashion, and the possible contributions of different experiences were determined by varying the training histories of different birds. Expand
Patterns of Program Evaluation Practice Among Members of the Evaluation Research Society and Evaluation Network
Using stratified random sampling of the membership directories of the Evaluation Network and the Evaluation Research Society, the practices of program evaluators were surveyed and patterns were differentially related to such factors as disciplinary background, organizational setting, and evaluation theory. Expand
Measuring and Training Creativity Competencies: Validation of a New Test
In 2 studies with a total of over 300 participants, the Epstein Creativity Competencies Inventory for Individuals (ECCI-i) was shown to be a reliable measuring instrument. In the first of theseExpand
The quest for the thinking computer
The first large-scale implementation of the Turing Test was set in motion in 1985, with the first contest taking place in 1991 and showing that although conversational computer programs are still quite primitive, distinguishing a person from a computer when only brief conversations are permitted can be challenging. Expand