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The causes of cancer: quantitative estimates of avoidable risks of cancer in the United States today.
Evidence that the various common types of cancer are largely avoidable diseases is reviewed, and it is suggested that, apart from cancer of the respiratory tract, the types of cancers that are currently common are not peculiarly modern diseases and are likely to depend chiefly on some long-established factor.
Mortality in relation to smoking: 50 years' observations on male British doctors
A substantial progressive decrease in the mortality rates among non-smokers over the past half century has been wholly outweighed, among cigarette smokers, by a progressive increase in the smoker νNon-smoker death rate ratio due to earlier and more intensive use of cigarettes.
Radon in homes and risk of lung cancer: collaborative analysis of individual data from 13 European case-control studies
- S. Darby, D. Hill, R. Doll
- Environmental Science, MedicineBMJ : British Medical Journal
- 21 December 2004
Collectively, though not separately, these studies show appreciable hazards from residential radon, particularly for smokers and recent ex-smokers, and indicate that it is responsible for about 2% of all deaths from cancer in Europe.
Cancer risks attributable to low doses of ionizing radiation: Assessing what we really know
- D. Brenner, R. Doll, M. Zaider
- MedicineProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences…
- 10 November 2003
The difficulties involved in quantifying the risks of low-dose radiation are reviewed, a linear extrapolation of cancer risks from intermediate to very low doses currently appears to be the most appropriate methodology, and a linearity assumption is not necessarily the most conservative approach.
The Age Distribution of Cancer and a Multi-stage Theory of Carcinogenesis
The theory that human cancer is the end-result of several successive cellular changes is tested by examining the age specific mortality rates for 17 types of cancer and provides a possible explanation for the observation that circumcision exerts an important protective effect against the development of cancer of the penis only if it be carried out early in life.
Effect of four monthly oral vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) supplementation on fractures and mortality in men and women living in the community: randomised double blind controlled trial
Four monthly supplementation with 100 000 IU oral vitamin D may prevent fractures without adverse effects in men and women living in the general community.
Mortality in relation to smoking: 40 years' observations on male British doctors
Results from the first 20 years of this study, and of other studies at that time, substantially underestimated the hazards of long term use of tobacco.
Alcohol consumption and mortality among middle-aged and elderly U.S. adults.
In this middle-aged and elderly population, moderate alcohol consumption slightly reduced overall mortality, and the benefit depended in part on age and background cardiovascular risk and was far smaller than the large increase in risk produced by tobacco.
Randomised trial of prophylactic daily aspirin in British male doctors
A six year randomised trial was conducted among 5139 apparently healthy male doctors to see whether 500 mg aspirin daily would reduce the incidence of and mortality from stroke, myocardial…
Smoking, smoking cessation, and lung cancer in the UK since 1950: combination of national statistics with two case-control studies
- R. Peto, S. Darby, H. Deo, P. Silcocks, E. Whitley, R. Doll
- MedicineBMJ : British Medical Journal
- 5 August 2000
People who stop smoking, even well into middle age, avoid most of their subsequent risk of lung cancer, and stopping before middle age avoids more than 90% of the risk attributable to tobacco.