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The Structure and Receptor Binding Properties of the 1918 Influenza Hemagglutinin
TLDR
The crystal structures of the HA from the 1918 virus and two closelyrelated HAs in complex with receptor analogs are determined, explaining how the 1918 HA, while retaining receptor binding site amino acids characteristic of an avian precursor HA, is able to bind human receptors and how the virus was able to spread in the human population.
Global circulation patterns of seasonal influenza viruses vary with antigenic drift
TLDR
Detailed epidemic models support differences in age of infection, combined with the less frequent travel of children, as probable drivers of the differences in the patterns of global circulation, suggesting a complex interaction between virus evolution, epidemiology, and human behaviour.
Evolution of the receptor binding properties of the influenza A(H3N2) hemagglutinin
TLDR
The results indicate that the evolution of human influenza A(H3N2) viruses since 1968 has produced a virus with a low propensity to bind human receptor analogs, and this loss of avidity correlates with the marked reduction in A( H3N 2) virus disease impact in the last 10 y.
A carbohydrate side chain on hemagglutinins of Hong Kong influenza viruses inhibits recognition by a monoclonal antibody.
TLDR
Immunoprecipitation experiments with extracts from variant virus-infected cells prepared in the presence or absence of tunicamycin, which inhibits glycosylation, demonstrate that addition of the new oligosaccharide side chain is required to prevent reaction with the monoclonal antibody.
Receptor binding by an H7N9 influenza virus from humans
TLDR
The human H7 virus has acquired some of the receptor-binding characteristics that are typical of pandemic viruses, but its retained preference for avian receptor may restrict its further evolution towards a virus that could transmit efficiently between humans.
Neuraminidase Receptor Binding Variants of Human Influenza A(H3N2) Viruses Resulting from Substitution of Aspartic Acid 151 in the Catalytic Site: a Role in Virus Attachment?
TLDR
The inhibition of NA-dependent agglutination by the inclusion of oseltamivir carboxylate in the assay was effective in restoring the anti-HA specificity of the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay for monitoring antigenic changes in HA.
Down-Modulation of Mature Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II and Up-Regulation of Invariant Chain Cell Surface Expression Are Well-Conserved Functions of Human and Simian Immunodeficiency
TLDR
The ability of Nef to interfere with MHC-II antigen presentation might play a role in AIDS pathogenesis as well as among HIV-2 and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) nef alleles is suggested.
Sequence Variations in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Nef Are Associated with Different Stages of Disease
TLDR
The results indicate that sequence variations in Nef are associated with different stages of HIV-1 infection and suggest a link between nef gene function and the immune status of the infected individual.
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