Resistance to HIV-1 infection in Caucasian individuals bearing mutant alleles of the CCR-5 chemokine receptor gene
It is shown that a mutant allele of CCR-5 is present at a high frequency in caucasian populations, but is absent in black populations from Western and Central Africa and Japanese populations, and a 32-base-pair deletion within the coding region results in a frame shift, and generates a non-functional receptor that does not support membrane fusion or infection by macrophage- and dual-tropic HIV-1 strains.
Bayesian community-wide culture-independent microbial source tracking
SourceTracker, a Bayesian approach to estimate the proportion of contaminants in a given community that come from possible source environments, is presented, and microbial surveys from neonatal intensive care units, offices and molecular biology laboratories are applied.
Innate lymphoid cells promote lung-tissue homeostasis after infection with influenza virus
A critical role for lung ILCs in restoring airway epithelial integrity and tissue homeostasis after infection with influenza virus is demonstrated.
A Dual-Tropic Primary HIV-1 Isolate That Uses Fusin and the β-Chemokine Receptors CKR-5, CKR-3, and CKR-2b as Fusion Cofactors
Gene editing of CCR5 in autologous CD4 T cells of persons infected with HIV.
CCR5-modified autologous CD4 T-cell infusions are safe within the limits of this study, and HIV RNA became undetectable in one of four patients who could be evaluated.
Associating microbiome composition with environmental covariates using generalized UniFrac distances
Motivation: The human microbiome plays an important role in human disease and health. Identification of factors that affect the microbiome composition can provide insights into disease mechanism as…
Topographical continuity of bacterial populations in the healthy human respiratory tract.
- Emily S. Charlson, K. Bittinger, R. Collman
- Medicine, BiologyAmerican Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care…
- 15 October 2011
The healthy lung does not contain a consistent distinct microbiome, but instead contains low levels of bacterial sequences largely indistinguishable from upper respiratory flora, in contrast to other organ systems.
Utilization of chemokine receptors, orphan receptors, and herpesvirus-encoded receptors by diverse human and simian immunodeficiency viruses
It is indicated that additional chemokine receptors can function as HIV and SIV coreceptors and that surface expression levels can strongly influence coreceptor use.
Innate Lymphoid Cells Promote Anatomical Containment of Lymphoid-Resident Commensal Bacteria
It is shown that interleukin-22 (IL-22)–producing innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are present in intestinal tissues of healthy mammals, indicating that ILCs regulate selective containment of lymphoid-resident bacteria to prevent systemic inflammation associated with chronic diseases.
siRNA-directed inhibition of HIV-1 infection
It is reported that siRNAs inhibit virus production by targeting the mRNAs for either the HIV-1 cellular receptor CD4, the viral structural Gag protein or green fluorescence protein substituted for the Nef regulatory protein.