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Floral diversity and pollen transfer mechanisms in bird-pollinated Salvia species.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Bird-pollinated (ornithophilous) Salvia species (sages) transfer pollen either by means of a staminal lever mechanism or by immovable stamens. As the distribution of the two modesExpand
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Pollination Syndromes of New World Salvia Species with Special Reference to Bird Pollination1
Abstract The genus Salvia L. (Lamiaceae) encompasses about 1000 species, approximately two thirds of which are in the New World. Bees and birds are known as pollinators, but a more detailed analysisExpand
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Stamen Development in Salvia L.: Homology Reinvestigated
The genus Salvia is characterized by lever‐like modified stamens. The hypothesis of homology is reinvestigated by referring to three different levels of positional homology: (1) the position of theExpand
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The staminal lever mechanism in Salvia L. (Lamiaceae): a key innovation for adaptive radiation?
Abstract Floral key innovations play a significant role in the discussion of adaptive radiation in plants. The paper brings together a brief review of morphological key innovations in plants,Expand
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Pollination syndromes in African Marantaceae.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS The Marantaceae (550 spp.) is the most derived family in the order Zingiberales and exhibits a complex explosive pollination mechanism. To understand the evolutionary significanceExpand
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Towards a new classification of Salvia s.l.: (re)establishing the genus Pleudia Raf.
Salvia L. In its traditional circumscription is the largest genus within the mint family. To date, the magnitude of the task has rendered it difficult to provide a genus-wide revision based onExpand
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Bilabiate flowers: the ultimate response to bees?
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Bilabiate flowers have evolved in many lineages of the angiosperms, thus representing a convincing example of parallel evolution. Similar to keel blossoms, they have obviouslyExpand
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Towards an ontogenetic understanding of inflorescence diversity.
BACKGROUNDS AND AIMS Conceptual and terminological conflicts in inflorescence morphology indicate a lack of understanding of the phenotypic diversity of inflorescences. In this study, anExpand
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Time to split Salvia s.l. (Lamiaceae) - New insights from Old World Salvia phylogeny.
AIMS Salvia L. is widely known as the largest genus in the mint family. A morphological modification of the androecium (lever-like stamens) was used to support this genus. However, molecular dataExpand
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Hummingbird pollination in Salvia haenkei (Lamiaceae) lacking the typical lever mechanism
While in most Salvia species pollen is transferred by the `staminal lever mechanism', in some species the `levers' are inactive. This is also found in the bird pollinated S. haenkei from Bolivia. ToExpand
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