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Reinitiation involving upstream ORFs regulates ATF4 mRNA translation in mammalian cells.
During cellular stresses, phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor-2 (eIF2) elicits gene expression designed to ameliorate the underlying cellular disturbance. Central to this stress responseExpand
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Coping with stress: eIF2 kinases and translational control.
In response to environmental stresses, a family of protein kinases phosphorylate eIF2 (eukaryotic initiation factor 2) to alleviate cellular injury or alternatively induce apoptosis. PhosphorylationExpand
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Activating Transcription Factor 3 Is Integral to the Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2 Kinase Stress Response
ABSTRACT In response to environmental stress, cells induce a program of gene expression designed to remedy cellular damage or, alternatively, induce apoptosis. In this report, we explore the role ofExpand
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Identification and Characterization of Pancreatic Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2 α-Subunit Kinase, PEK, Involved in Translational Control
ABSTRACT In response to various environmental stresses, eukaryotic cells down-regulate protein synthesis by phosphorylation of the α subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF-2α). InExpand
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Phosphorylation of eIF2 Facilitates Ribosomal Bypass of an Inhibitory Upstream ORF to Enhance CHOP Translation*♦
In response to different environmental stresses, phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor-2 (eIF2) rapidly reduces protein synthesis, which lowers energy expenditure and facilitatesExpand
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The histidyl-tRNA synthetase-related sequence in the eIF-2 alpha protein kinase GCN2 interacts with tRNA and is required for activation in response to starvation for different amino acids.
Protein kinase GCN2 is a multidomain protein that contains a region homologous to histidyl-tRNA synthetases juxtaposed to the kinase catalytic moiety. Previous studies have shown that in response toExpand
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Phosphorylation of initiation factor 2α by protein kinase GCN2 mediates gene-specific translational control of GCN4 in yeast
We show that phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF-2) by the protein kinase GCN2 mediates translational control of the yeast transcriptionalExpand
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Eukaryotic initiation factor 2 phosphorylation and translational control in metabolism.
Regulation of mRNA translation is a rapid and effective means to couple changes in the cellular environment with global rates of protein synthesis. In response to stresses, such as nutrientExpand
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Phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 is required for activation of NF-kappaB in response to diverse cellular stresses.
Nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) serves to coordinate the transcription of genes in response to diverse environmental stresses. In this report we show that phosphorylation of the alpha subunit ofExpand
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Phosphorylation of eIF2 Directs ATF5 Translational Control in Response to Diverse Stress Conditions*
Phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2) is an important mechanism regulating global and gene-specific translation in response to different environmental stresses. Central to the eIF2Expand
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