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Glutathione peroxidases.
Collectively, selenium-containing GPxs as well as their non-selenium congeners (GPx5, 7 and 8) became key players in important biological contexts far beyond the detoxification of hydroperoxides. Expand
Vitamin E: function and metabolism
Current knowledge on the function of vitamin E is summarized, with emphasis on its antioxidant vs. other properties, the preference of the organism for RRR‐α‐tocopherol, and its metabolism to CEHCs. Expand
Tissue-specific functions of individual glutathione peroxidases.
All individual isoenzymes are efficient peroxidases in principle, but beyond their mere antioxidant potential may exert cell- and tissue-specific roles in metabolic regulation, as is evident for PHGPx and may be expected for others. Expand
Redox regulation of NF-kappa B activation.
Upstream kinase(s) and or phosphatase(S) prone to thiolation or oxidation of vicinal SH groups are at present considered the best candidates mediating the redox regulation of NF-kappaB. Expand
Diversity of glutathione peroxidases.
The putative biological roles of the selenoenzymes, particularly those of the glutathione peroxidases (GPX), proved instrumental in the understanding of selenium deficiency syndromes in livestock and humans, although the emerging complexity of seenium enzymology still precludes definitive conclusions. Expand
Basic principles and emerging concepts in the redox control of transcription factors.
Convincing concepts of redox control of gene transcription have been worked out for prokaryotes and lower eukaryotes, whereas the knowledge on complex mammalian systems still resembles a patchwork ofExpand
Glutathione peroxidases and redox-regulated transcription factors
Analysis of the selenoproteome identified cGPx, PHGPx and GI-GPx have distinct roles, particularly in cellular defence mechanisms, and indicates that nature has not created redundant GPxs just to detoxify hydroperoxides. Expand
The GI-GPx Gene Is a Target for Nrf2
The presumed natural antioxidants sulforaphane and curcumin may exert their anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic effects not only by induction of phase 2 enzymes but also by the up-regulation of the selenoprotein GI-GPx. Expand
Vitamin E: the shrew waiting to be tamed.
Emerging knowledge on vitamin E is compiled here with the perspective to unravel the molecular mechanisms that could more likely explain the essentiality of the vitamin than its ability to scavenge free radicals. Expand
Identities and differences in the metabolism of tocotrienols and tocopherols in HepG2 cells.
Findings demonstrate that the trienols are metabolized essentially like tocopherols, i.e., by omega-oxidation followed by beta-Oxidation of the side chain, as in the metabolism of unsaturated fatty acids. Expand