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Biology's First Law: The Tendency for Diversity and Complexity to Increase in Evolutionary Systems
Life on earth is characterized by three striking phenomena that demand explanation: adaptation - the marvelous fit between organism and environment; diversity - the great variety of organisms; andExpand
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Individuality, pluralism, and the phylogenetic species concept
The concept of individuality as applied to species, an important advance in the philosophy of evolutionary biology, is nevertheless in need of refinement. Four important subparts of this concept mustExpand
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Does Biology Have Laws? The Experimental Evidence
  • R. Brandon
  • Sociology
  • Philosophy of Science
  • 1 December 1997
In this paper I argue that we can best make sense of the practice of experimental evolutionary biology if we see it as investigating contingent, rather than lawlike, regularities. This understandingExpand
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Grene on Mechanism and Reductionism: More Than Just a Side Issue
  • R. Brandon
  • Philosophy
  • PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the…
  • 1 January 1984
In this paper the common association between ontological reductionism and a methodological position called 'Mechanism' is discussed. Three major points are argued for: (1) Mechanism is not to beExpand
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Integrating evolution and development : from theory to practice
The twentieth century's conceptual separation of the process of evolution (changes in a population as its members reproduce and die) from the process of development (changes in an organism over theExpand
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The Difference Between Selection and Drift: A Reply to Millstein
Millstein (2002) correctly identifies a serious problem with the view that natural selection and random drift are not conceptually distinct (a view seemingly defended by Beatty 1984). Expand
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Testing Adaptationism: A Comment on Orzack and Sober
One of the most heated areas of controversy within contemporary evolutionary biology concerns adaptationism and the importance of natural selection relative to other evolutionary factors. BecauseExpand
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From icons to symbols: Some speculations on the origins of language
This paper is divided into three sections. In the first section we offer a retooling of some traditional concepts, namely icons and symbols, which allows us to describe an evolutionary continuum ofExpand
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The Empirical Nonequivalence of Genic and Genotypic Models of Selection: A (Decisive) Refutation of Genic Selectionism and Pluralistic Genic Selectionism*
Genic selectionists (Williams 1966; Dawkins 1976) defend the view that genes are the (unique) units of selection and that all evolutionary events can be adequately represented at the genic level.Expand
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Genes, Organisms, Populations: Controversies Over the Units of Selection
This anthology collects some of the most important papers on what is believed to be the major force in evolution, natural selection. An issue of great consequence in the philosophy of biologyExpand
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