Occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in fish: Results of a national pilot study in the united states
- A. Ramirez, R. Brain, C. Chambliss
- Environmental ScienceEnvironmental Toxicology and Chemistry
- 1 December 2009
Results suggest that the detection of pharmaceuticals and personal care products was dependent on the degree of wastewater treatment employed, and more pharmaceuticals were detected at higher concentrations and with greater frequency in liver than in fillet tissues.
Probabilistic hazard assessment of environmentally occurring pharmaceuticals toxicity to fish, daphnids and algae by ECOSAR screening.
Effects of 25 pharmaceutical compounds to Lemna gibba using a seven‐day static‐renewal test
- R. Brain, David J. Johnson, S. Richards, H. Sanderson, P. Sibley, K. Solomon
- Biology, MedicineEnvironmental Toxicology and Chemistry
- 1 February 2004
Injury symptoms were comparatively uniform and consistent among chemical classes while degree of phytotoxicity varied considerably; both of these criteria varied markedly between classes.
Aquatic persistence of eight pharmaceuticals in a microcosm study
No significant differences were observed between measured half‐lives of the pharmaceuticals in sunlight‐exposed pond water and autoclaved pond water, which suggests photode degradation was important in limiting their persistence, and biodegradation was not an important loss process in surface water over the duration of the study.
Ranking and prioritization of environmental risks of pharmaceuticals in surface waters.
Aquatic plants exposed to pharmaceuticals: effects and risks.
- R. Brain, M. Hanson, K. Solomon, B. Brooks
- Biology, Environmental ScienceReviews of environmental contamination and…
The risk assessment for this review was based almost entirely on evaluations of gross morphological endpoints, which generally indicated that the risk pharmaceuticals pose to aquatic plants is generally low, with a few exceptions, particularly blue-green algae exposed to antibiotics, and both green and blue- green algae exposure to triclosan.
Microcosm evaluation of the effects of an eight pharmaceutical mixture to the aquatic macrophytes Lemna gibba and Myriophyllum sibiricum.
Toxicity and hazard of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, and sertraline to algae.
Herbicidal effects of sulfamethoxazole in Lemna gibba: using p-aminobenzoic acid as a biomarker of effect.
- R. Brain, A. Ramirez, B. Fulton, C. Chambliss, B. Brooks
- BiologyEnvironmental science & technology
- 31 October 2008
Analysis of pABA concentrations appears to provide a sulfonamide-specific biomarker of effect based on MOA with exceptional diagnostic capacity and sensitivity compared to traditional morphological end points, suggesting that, as in bacteria, sulf onamide antibiotics specifically disrupt folate biosynthesis via inhibition of DHPS.
Toxicity classification and evaluation of four pharmaceuticals classes: antibiotics, antineoplastics, cardiovascular, and sex hormones.