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Culture and the Evolutionary Process
How do biological, psychological, sociological, and cultural factors combine to change societies over the long run? Boyd and Richerson explore how genetic and cultural factors interact, under the… Expand
The evolution of altruistic punishment
- R. Boyd, H. Gintis, S. Bowles, P. Richerson
- Economics, Medicine
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences…
- 11 March 2003
Both laboratory and field data suggest that people punish noncooperators even in one-shot interactions. Although such “altruistic punishment” may explain the high levels of cooperation in human… Expand
The evolution of reciprocity in sizable groups.
Recently, several authors have investigated the evolution of reciprocal altruism using the repeated prisoner's dilemma game. These models suggest that natural selection is likely to favor behavioral… Expand
The evolution of indirect reciprocity
Human societies are based on cooperation among large numbers of genetically unrelated individuals. This behavior is puzzling from an evolutionary perspective. Because cooperators are unrelated it… Expand
Punishment allows the evolution of cooperation (or anything else) in sizable groups
Abstract Existing models suggest that reciprocity is unlikely to evolve in large groups as a result of natural selection. In these models, reciprocators punish noncooperation by with-holding future… Expand
Why Culture is Common, but Cultural Evolution is Rare
If culture is defined as variation acquired and maintained by social learning, then culture is common in nature. However, cumulative cultural evolution resulting in behaviours that no individual… Expand
Not by genes alone: How culture transformed human evolution.
Humans are a striking anomaly in the natural world. While we are similar to other mammals in many ways, our behavior sets us apart. Our unparalleled ability to adapt has allowed us to occupy… Expand
Why does culture increase human adaptability
Abstract It is often argued that culture is adaptive because it allows people to acquire useful information without costly learning. In a recent paper Rogers (1989) analyzed a simple mathematical… Expand
A tale of two defectors: the importance of standing for evolution of indirect reciprocity.
Indirect reciprocity occurs when the cooperative behavior between two individuals is contingent on their previous behavior toward others. Previous theoretical analysis indicates that indirect… Expand