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Analysis of the macular pigment by HPLC: retinal distribution and age study.
High performance liquid chromatography (HPCL) has been employed to study the distribution throughout the human retina of zeaxanthin and lutein, the two major components of the macular pigment.Expand
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Biologic mechanisms of the protective role of lutein and zeaxanthin in the eye.
The macular region of the primate retina is yellow in color due to the presence of the macular pigment, composed of two dietary xanthophylls, lutein and zeaxanthin, and another xanthophyll,Expand
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Lutein, zeaxanthin, and the macular pigment.
The predominant carotenoids of the macular pigment are lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin. The regular distribution pattern of these carotenoids within the human macula indicates that theirExpand
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A one year study of the macular pigment: the effect of 140 days of a lutein supplement.
A low density of macular pigment may represent a risk factor for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) by permitting greater blue light damage. This study was carried out to determine the effects onExpand
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Distribution of lutein and zeaxanthin stereoisomers in the human retina.
The distribution of macular pigment stereoisomers in the human retina has been mapped and a pathway to account for the presence of the non-dietary carotenoid, meso-zeaxanthin, is proposed. AdultExpand
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  • Open Access
Stereochemistry of the human macular carotenoids.
PURPOSE To complete identification of the major components of the human macular pigment. METHODS Chemical ionization mass spectra of the macular pigment components were obtained and compared withExpand
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Lutein and zeaxanthin dietary supplements raise macular pigment density and serum concentrations of these carotenoids in humans.
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is thought to be the result of a lifetime of oxidative insult that results in photoreceptor death within the macula. Increased risk of AMD may result from lowExpand
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Macular pigment in donor eyes with and without AMD: a case-control study.
PURPOSE To determine whether there is an association between the density of macular pigment in the human retina and the risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). METHODS Retinas from 56Expand
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Preliminary identification of the human macular pigment
The human macular pigment has been found to be composed to two chromatographically separable components, which are tentatively identified as lutein [(3R,3'R,6'R)-beta,epsilon-Carotene-3,3'-diol] andExpand
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Lutein and zeaxanthin in the eyes, serum and diet of human subjects.
Inverse associations have been reported between the incidence of advanced, neovascular, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and the combined lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) intake in the diet, and LExpand
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