The spring-mass model for running and hopping.
- R. Blickhan
- PhysicsJournal of Biomechanics
Compliant leg behaviour explains basic dynamics of walking and running
- H. Geyer, A. Seyfarth, R. Blickhan
- Biology, EngineeringProceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological…
- 22 November 2006
A simple bipedal spring–mass model is shown that not stiff but compliant legs are essential to obtain the basic walking mechanics and reproduces the characteristic stance dynamics that result in the observed small vertical oscillation of the body and the observed out-of-phase changes in forward kinetic and gravitational potential energies.
Hopping frequency in humans: a test of how springs set stride frequency in bouncing gaits.
- C. T. Farley, R. Blickhan, J. Saito, C. R. Taylor
- EngineeringJournal of applied physiology
- 1 December 1991
This work hypothesized that animals select the stride frequency at which they behave most like simple spring-mass systems, and tested the hypothesis by having humans hop forward on a treadmill over a range of speeds and hop in place over arange of frequencies.
Spring-mass running: simple approximate solution and application to gait stability.
A movement criterion for running.
Similarity in multilegged locomotion: Bouncing like a monopode
Comparison of dimensionless parameters revealed that locomotor dynamics depend on gait and leg number and not on body mass, and Relative stiffness per leg was similar for all animals and appears to be a very conservative quantity in the design of legged locomotor systems.
Leg design in hexapedal runners.
To explain how diverse leg designs can result in common whole-body dynamics, a miniature force platform was used to measure the ground reaction forces produced by individual legs of the cockroach Blaberus discoidalis and showed that deviations from the minimum moments may be explained by considering the minimization of the summed muscle forces in more than one leg.
Dynamic and static stability in hexapedal runners.
Running cockroaches met the criteria for static stability over a wide range of speeds, yet several locomotor variables changed in a way that revealed an increase in the importance of dynamic stability as speed increased, indicating instances of static instability at fast speeds.
Locomotion Energetics of the Ghost Crab: II. Mechanics of the Centre of Mass During Walking and Running
Despite the obvious differences in mechanical design between crabs and mammals, energy-conserving mechanisms and the efficiency of locomotion were remarkably similar, which may result from the fact that the muscles that generate forces during terrestrial locomotion have relatively conservative mechanical and energetic properties.
Positive force feedback in bouncing gaits?
It is suggested that, during the stance phase of bouncing tasks, the reflex–generated motor control based on feedbacks might be an efficient and reliable alternative to central motor commands.