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Viral Mutation Rates
ABSTRACT Accurate estimates of virus mutation rates are important to understand the evolution of the viruses and to combat them. However, methods of estimation are varied and often complex. Here, weExpand
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The structure of an aphid–parasitoid community
1. A quantitative parasitoid web was constructed describing the trophic relationships between the community of aphids, parasitoids and secondary parasitoids in an abandoned field in southern England.Expand
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Robustness of ancestral state estimates: evolution of life history strategy in ichneumonoid parasitoids.
We test hypotheses for the evolution of a life history trait among a group of parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea), namely, the transition among koinobiont parasitoids (parasitoids whoseExpand
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Insect parasitoids an evolutionary overview
This paper reviews the biology of insect parasitoids and cleptoparasitoids and places them in an evolutionary context. Available biological data are reviewed and tabulated (at the family level) withExpand
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A phylogenetic reconstruction of the Ichneumonoidea (Hymenoptera) based on the D2 variable region of 28S ribosomal RNA
The D2 variable region of 28S rRNA was sequenced in a wide range of Ichneumonoidea to provide the first comprehensive phylogenetic reconstruction of this superfamily. The two constituent familiesExpand
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Long-term reinfection of the human genome by endogenous retroviruses.
Endogenous retrovirus (ERV) families are derived from their exogenous counterparts by means of a process of germ-line infection and proliferation within the host genome. Several families in the humanExpand
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Genomewide Screening Reveals High Levels of Insertional Polymorphism in the Human Endogenous Retrovirus Family HERV-K(HML2): Implications for Present-Day Activity
ABSTRACT The published human genome sequence contains many thousands of endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) but all are defective, containing nonsense mutations or major deletions. Only the HERV-K(HML2)Expand
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A molecular phylogeny of the Aphidiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).
Phylogenetic relationships within the Aphidiinae, and between this and other subfamilies of Braconidae (Hymenoptera), were investigated using sequence data from three genes: elongation factor-1alpha,Expand
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The evolution of genome compression and genomic novelty in RNA viruses.
The genomes of RNA viruses are characterized by their extremely small size and extremely high mutation rates (typically 10 kb and 10(-4)/base/replication cycle, respectively), traits that are thoughtExpand
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BlastAlign: a program that uses blast to align problematic nucleotide sequences
BlastAlign uses NCBI blastn to build a multiple nucleotide alignment and is intended for use with sequences that have large indels or are otherwise difficult to align globally. Expand
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