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Distributed generation: definition, benefits and issues
This paper starts from the observation that there is a renewed interest in small-scale electricity generation. The authors start with a survey of existing small-scale generation technologies and then
A voltage and frequency droop control method for parallel inverters
In this paper, a new control method for the parallel operation of one or several inverters in an island grid or the mains is described. Frequency and voltage control, including mitigation of voltage
Generalized steady-state VSC MTDC model for sequential AC/DC power flow algorithms
The paper introduces a mathematical model to include the converter limits and discusses how the equations change when a transformerless operation is considered or when the converter filter is omitted.
A Voltage and Frequency Droop Control Method for Parallel Inverters
In this paper, a new control method for the parallel operation of inverters operating in an island grid or connected to an infinite bus is described. Frequency and voltage control, including
Usefulness of DC power flow for active power flow analysis
The paper answers the question of how low the X/R ratio of line parameters can be, and what is the maximal deviation from the perfect flat voltage which still allows DC power flow to be acceptably accurate.
A classification of DC node voltage control methods for HVDC grids
Abstract In a DC grid, contingencies such as converter outages give rise to a current imbalance that is reflected in the DC node voltages in the grid. This imbalance has to be accounted for by
Generalized Dynamic VSC MTDC Model for Power System Stability Studies
In this paper, a new general voltage source converter high voltage direct current (VSC MTDC) model is derived mathematically. The full system model consists of the converter and its controllers, DC
Well-functioning balancing markets: A prerequisite for wind power integration
This article focuses on the design of balancing markets in Europe taking into account an increasing wind power penetration. In several European countries, wind generation is so far not burdened with
Wavelet-based protection strategy for DC faults in multi-terminal VSC HVDC systems
A new protection algorithm for DC line faults in multi-terminal high voltage DC (MTDC) systems is proposed in this study. A four-terminal MTDC model is used to investigate fault behaviour and
Design and Operation of a Phase-Locked Loop with Kalman Estimator-Based Filter for Single-Phase Applications
This paper describes the design procedure of a phase-locked loop (PLL) preceded by a Kalman estimator-based filter. It provides a highly accurate and fast estimate of the grid frequency and phase