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The need to belong: desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation.
A hypothesized need to form and maintain strong, stable interpersonal relationships is evaluated in light of the empirical literature. The need is for frequent, nonaversive interactions within anExpand
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High self-control predicts good adjustment, less pathology, better grades, and interpersonal success.
What good is self-control? We incorporated a new measure of individual differences in self-control into two large investigations of a broad spectrum of behaviors. The new scale showed good internalExpand
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Ego depletion: is the active self a limited resource?
Choice, active response, self-regulation, and other volition may all draw on a common inner resource. In Experiment 1, people who forced themselves to eat radishes instead of tempting chocolatesExpand
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Self-regulation and depletion of limited resources: does self-control resemble a muscle?
The authors review evidence that self-control may consume a limited resource. Exerting self-control may consume self-control strength, reducing the amount of strength available for subsequentExpand
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Choking under pressure: self-consciousness and paradoxical effects of incentives on skillful performance.
  • R. Baumeister
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Journal of personality and social psychology
  • 1 March 1984
Choking under pressure is defined as performance decrements under circumstances that increase the importance of good or improved performance. A model for choking on coordination and skill tasks isExpand
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Does High Self-Esteem Cause Better Performance, Interpersonal Success, Happiness, or Healthier Lifestyles?
Self-esteem has become a household word. Teachers, parents, therapists, and others have focused efforts on boosting self-esteem, on the assumption that high self-esteem will cause many positiveExpand
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Bad is Stronger than Good
The greater power of bad events over good ones is found in everyday events, major life events (e.g., trauma), close relationship outcomes, social network patterns, interpersonal interactions, andExpand
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Self-control as limited resource: regulatory depletion patterns.
If self-regulation conforms to an energy or strength model, then self-control should be impaired by prior exertion. In Study 1, trying to regulate one's emotional response to an upsetting movie wasExpand
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Suicide as escape from self.
Suicide is analyzed in terms of motivations to escape from aversive self-awareness. The causal chain begins with events that fall severely short of standards and expectations. These failures areExpand
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Guilt: an interpersonal approach.
Multiple sets of empirical research findings on guilt are reviewed to evaluate the view that guilt should be understood as an essentially social phenomenon that happens between people as much as itExpand
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