• Publications
  • Influence
The evolution of cooperation.
A model is developed based on the concept of an evolutionarily stable strategy in the context of the Prisoner's Dilemma game to show how cooperation based on reciprocity can get started in an asocial world, can thrive while interacting with a wide range of other strategies, and can resist invasion once fully established. Expand
The Evolution of Cooperation
Cooperation in organisms, whether bacteria or primates, has been a difficulty for evolutionary theory since Darwin. On the assumption that interactions between pairs of individuals occur on aExpand
Evolutionary Dynamics
Through the animal and vegetable kingdoms, nature has scattered the seeds of life abroad with the most profuse and liberal hand; but has been comparatively sparing in the room and nourishmentExpand
The Dissemination of Culture
Despite tendencies toward convergence, differences between individuals and groups continue to exist in beliefs, attitudes, and behavior. An agent-based adaptive model reveals the effects of aExpand
An evolutionary approach to norms
Iorms provide a powerful mechanism for regulating conflict in groups, even when there are more than two people and no central authority. This paper investigates the emergence and stability ofExpand
Harnessing Complexity: Organizational Implications of a Scientific Frontier
A state-of-the-art guide to the new field of complexity-the tool leaders use to understand how people and organizations adapt in a world of rapid change.. Harnessing Complexity will be indispensableExpand
Advancing the art of simulation in the social sciences
  • R. Axelrod
  • Computer Science, Political Science
  • 1 November 1997
Advice is offered for doing simulation research, focusing on the programming of a simulation model, analyzing the results and sharing the results with others. Expand
Structure of decision : the cognitive maps of political elites
This book outlines a new approach to the analysis of decision making based on "cognitive maps." A cognitive map is a graphic representation intended to capture the structure of a decision maker'sExpand
Evolution of cooperation without reciprocity
Computer simulations are used to show that cooperation can arise when agents donate to others who are sufficiently similar to themselves in some arbitrary characteristic, or ‘tag’, which can be a marking, display, or other observable trait. Expand