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Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) and PARK2/Parkin mutations cause autosomal recessive forms of Parkinson's disease. Upon a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)) in human cells, cytosolic Parkin has been reported to be recruited to mitochondria, which is followed by a stimulation of mitochondrial(More)
Continuous turnover of intracellular components by autophagy is necessary to preserve cellular homeostasis in all tissues. Alterations in macroautophagy, the main process responsible for bulk autophagic degradation, have been proposed to contribute to pathogenesis in Huntington's disease (HD), a genetic neurodegenerative disorder caused by an expanded(More)
The effects of the excitatory amino acid (EAA) receptor antagonists MK-801 (non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist), DNQX (competitive non-NMDA receptor antagonist) and 5,7-DCKA (antagonist of glycine site of NMDA receptor) have been examined on the naloxone (4 mg/kg, i.p.)-precipitated withdrawal jumping behaviour in morphine-dependent mice. The results(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorders. Pathologically, it is characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). Although most occurrences have an unknown cause, several gene mutations have been linked to familial forms of PD. The discovery of some of the proteins encoded(More)
The immunological response in the brain is crucial to overcome neuropathological events. Some inflammatory mediators, such as the immunoregulatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) affect neuromodulation and may also play protective roles against various noxious conditions. However, the fundamental mechanisms underlying the long-term effects of IL-6 in the(More)
A (partial) Built-in Self-Test (BIST) methodology is proposed for analog to digital (A/D) converters. In this methodology the number of bits of the A/D converter that needs to be monitored externally in a test is reduced. This reduction depends, among other things, on the frequency of the applied test signal. At low test signal frequencies only the least(More)
We examined the effects of potent neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitors, 3-bromo-7-nitro indazole (3-Br-7-NI) and S-methyl-L-thiocitrulline (S-Me-TC) on general behaviour, vigilance stages and electroencephalographic (EEG) power spectra in rats. In addition, we studied the effect of 7-nitro indazole (7-NI) on EEG power spectra in rats during dark and(More)
We examined the effect of 7-nitro indazole (7-NI, 2.5-50 mg/kg, i.p.), an inhibitor of central nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, on general behaviour and sleep. The results show that 7-NI induces ptosis, a loss of the righting reflex and decrease of the EEG amplitudes. Furthermore, a duration of slow wave sleep (SWS) and REM sleep decreased, while the latencies(More)