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The Cassini Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) has obtained the first in situ composition measurements of the neutral densities of molecular nitrogen, methane, molecular hydrogen, argon, and a host of stable carbon-nitrile compounds in Titan's upper atmosphere. INMS in situ mass spectrometry has also provided evidence for atmospheric waves in the upper(More)
The nucleus of the Jupiter-family comet 19P/Borrelly was closely observed by the Miniature Integrated Camera and Spectrometer aboard the Deep Space 1 spacecraft on 22 September 2001. The 8-kilometer-long body is highly variegated on a scale of 200 meters, exhibiting large albedo variations (0.01 to 0.03) and complex geologic relationships. Short-wavelength(More)
The Cassini spacecraft passed within 168.2 kilometers of the surface above the southern hemisphere at 19:55:22 universal time coordinated on 14 July 2005 during its closest approach to Enceladus. Before and after this time, a substantial atmospheric plume and coma were observed, detectable in the Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) data set out to a(More)
We report the detection of intense emission from magnesium and iron in Mars' atmosphere suggests a substantial fluence of low-density dust particles 1–100 μm in size, with the large amount and small size contrary to predictions. The event created a temporary planet-wide ionospheric layer below Mars' main dayside ionosphere. The dramatic meteor shower(More)
Results from the occultation of the sun by Neptune imply a temperature of 750 +/- 150 kelvins in the upper levels of the atmosphere (composed mostly of atomic and molecular hydrogen) and define the distributions of methane, acetylene, and ethane at lower levels. The ultraviolet spectrum of the sunlit atmosphere of Neptune resembles the spectra of the(More)
The structure of the Jovian stratosphere at the Galileo probe entry site is investigated through calculations of radiative heating rates based on measurements of the temperature profile, composition , and aerosol distribution. From analysis of mid-IR observations of Jupiter, we determine a C 2 H 2 mole fraction of 1.1–4.3 × 10 −6 at 0.01 mbar, and a C 2 H 6(More)
Experimental simulations of the initial steps of the ion-molecule reactions occurring in the ionosphere of Titan were performed at the synchrotron source Elettra in Italy. The measurements consisted of irradiating gas mixtures with a monochromatic photon beam, from the methane ionization threshold at 12.6 eV, up to and beyond the molecular nitrogen(More)
Spectroscopy of Io's Pele plume against Jupiter by the Hubble Space Telescope in October 1999 revealed absorption due to S2 gas, with a column density of 1.0 +/- 0.2 x 10(16) per square centimeter, and probably also SO(2) gas with a column density of 7 +/- 3 x 10(16) per square centimeter. This SO2/S2 ratio (3 to 12) is expected from equilibration with(More)
The detection of hot atomic hydrogen and heavy atoms and ions at high altitudes around close-in extrasolar giant planets (EGPs) such as HD209458b implies that these planets have hot and rapidly escaping atmospheres that extend to several planetary radii. These characteristics, however, cannot be generalized to all close-in EGPs. The thermal escape mechanism(More)