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Here we show that in substantia nigra neurons from both aged controls and individuals with Parkinson disease, there is a high level of deleted mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) (controls, 43.3% ± 9.3%; individuals with Parkinson disease, 52.3% ± 9.3%). These mtDNA mutations are somatic, with different clonally expanded deletions in individual cells, and high levels(More)
BACKGROUND Alcohol dependence is a complex disease, and although linkage and candidate gene studies have identified several genes associated with the risk for alcoholism, these explain only a portion of the risk. METHODS We carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on a case-control sample drawn from the families in the Collaborative Study on the(More)
Mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are a common cause of genetic disease. Pathogenic mutations in mtDNA are detected in approximately 1 in 250 live births and at least 1 in 10,000 adults in the UK are affected by mtDNA disease. Treatment options for patients with mtDNA disease are extremely limited and are predominantly supportive in nature.(More)
The mitochondrial genome encodes 13 essential subunits of the respiratory chain and has remarkable genetics based on uniparental inheritance. Within human populations, the mitochondrial genome has a high rate of sequence divergence with multiple polymorphic variants and thus has played a major role in examining the evolutionary history of our species. In(More)
During the past decade, there have been many descriptions of patients with neurological disorders due to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations, but the extent and spectrum of mtDNA disease in the general population have not yet been defined. Adults with suspected mtDNA disease in the North East of England were referred to a single neurology center for(More)
Aspects of chromosomal mutation and karyotype evolution in ants are discussed with reference to recently accumulated karyological data, and to detailed karyotype analyses of several species or species complexes with low chromosome number and unusual chromosomal mutations (the complexes of Myrmecia pilosula (Smith) (n = 1, 5 or 9 to 16); M. piliventris Smith(More)
BACKGROUND A central fat pattern has adverse health implications in both children and adults. Because adiposity tracks from childhood into adulthood, the ability of simple anthropometric techniques to correctly measure truncal adiposity in childhood needs to be assessed. OBJECTIVES We sought to assess the validity of waist circumference, waist-to-hip(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the safety and physiologic response of inhaled nitric oxide (NO) in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In addition, the effect of various doses of inhaled NO on clinical outcome parameters was assessed. DESIGN Prospective, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. SETTING Intensive(More)
OBJECTIVE Diverse and variable clinical features, a loose genotype-phenotype relationship, and presentation to different medical specialties have all hindered attempts to gauge the epidemiological impact of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) disease. Nevertheless, a clear understanding of its prevalence remains an important goal, particularly about planning(More)
The molecular mechanisms by which mutations in the gene for Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) lead to the selective death of motor neurones in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS) remain incompletely understood. Previous evidence has indicated that mitochondrial abnormalities may develop during motor neurone injury, but several important questions(More)