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A new, improved procedure for isolating mitochondria from ascites tumor cells is described. The unique feature of this technique is the use of digitonin to make the cells susceptible to disruption by Teflon pestle/glass vessel homogenization. The yield and respiratory control ratios of mitochondria isolated by this method from murine Ehrlich ascites tumor(More)
Little evidence has been available on the oxidative pathways of glutamine and glutamate, the major respiratory substrates of cancer cells. Glutamate formed from glutamine by phosphate-dependent glutaminase undergoes quantitative transamination by aerobic tumor mitochondria to yield aspartate. However, when malate is also added there is a pronounced decrease(More)
T lymphocytes have been implicated in the onset of many autoimmune diseases; however, the mechanisms underlying T-cell activation toward self antigens are poorly understood. To study whether T-lymphocyte costimulation can overcome the immunologic unresponsiveness observed in an in vivo model, we have created transgenic mice expressing the costimulatory(More)
We have developed a binary transgenic system that activates an otherwise silent transgene in the progeny of a simple genetic cross. The system consists of two types of transgenic mouse strains, targets and transactivators. A target strain bears a transgene controlled by yeast regulatory sequences (UAS) that respond only to the yeast transcriptional(More)
We have derived putative embryonic stem (ES) cell lines from preimplantation rabbit embryos and report here their initial characterization. Two principal cell types emerged following serial passage of explanted embryos, and each has subsequently given rise to immortalized cell lines. One cell type has morphology identical to primary outgrowths of(More)
Mammalian spermatogenesis is a complex developmental process. The analysis of mouse mutations has provided insight into biochemical pathways required for completion of this process. We previously described the autosomal recessive mouse morc TgN(Tyr)1Az(microrchidia) mutation, a serendipitous transgenic insertional mutation which causes arrest of(More)
We report the case of an infant with hypoglycemia, progressive lactic acidosis, an increased serum lactate/pyruvate ratio, and elevated plasma alanine, who had a moderate to profound decrease in the ability of mitochondria from four organs to oxidize pyruvate, malate plus glutamate, citrate, and other NAD+-linked respiratory substrates. The capacity to(More)
Heat shock proteins are proposed to limit injury resulting from diverse environmental stresses, but direct metabolic evidence for such a cytoprotective function in vertebrates has been largely limited to studies of cultured cells. We generated lines of transgenic mice to express human 70-kDa heat shock protein constitutively in the myocardium. Hearts(More)
The purification and kinetic characterization of an NAD(P)+-malic enzyme from 22aH mouse hepatoma mitochondria are described. The enzyme was purified 328-fold with a final yield of 51% and specific activity of 38.1 units/mg of protein by employing DEAE-cellulose chromatography and an ATP affinity column. Sephadex G-200 chromatography yielded a native Mr =(More)