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A method was developed to study exclusively those therapeutic effects of oximes that are not related to reactivation of organophosphate-inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The model uses the organophosphorus compound crotylsarin (CRS), which proved to be a potent, irreversible, peripherally and centrally active AChE inhibitor with a very short biological(More)
The efficacy and possible health risks of pepper spray were evaluated. In a number of countries, pepper spray is being used by police forces to aid in arresting aggressive individuals. Pepper spray is commercially available as a canister filled with Capsicum extract, which contains capsaicin as the active component. When applied in the form of a spray, it(More)
To prevent incapacitation following nerve agent intoxications, it is proposed to replace pyridostigmine by the centrally active carbamate physostigmine (PHY). Behavioral and neurophysiological effects of PHY were determined and whether these effects would be counteracted by scopolamine. In addition, we compared them with the effects of another reversible(More)
To investigate at which dose levels undesirable effects started, behavioural performance and several physiological parameters were measured in marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) after soman (1.75 and 3.5 micrograms/kg), sarin (3 and 6 micrograms/kg), physostigmine (10 and 20 micrograms/kg), and pyridostigmine (200 and 400 micrograms/kg). Effects on performance(More)
The behavioral and neurophysiological effects of the subchronically administered cholinesterase-inhibitor physostigmine (PHY) (0.025 mg/kg/h) either with or without the muscarinergic antagonist scopolamine (SCO) (0.018 mg/kg/h) were determined in guinea pigs. In contrast to a single injection of PHY, subchronic application by osmotic minipumps of PHY, even(More)
The therapeutic efficacy of the oxime HI-6 against intoxication with the irreversible cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitor soman was tested in marmoset monkeys. Five out of six marmosets, intoxicated with 5 x LD50 soman and treated immediately with diazepam (0.2 mg.kg-1 iv) and 15 sec later with atropine (0.5 mg.kg-1 im) and HI-6 (50 mg.kg-1 im), survived for(More)
The therapeutic efficacy of single or repeated doses of HI-6, together with atropine, against soman poisoning were compared both in guinea pigs and in marmoset monkeys. In addition, the pharmacokinetics of HI-6 were determined after single or repeated injections. Both single and repeated HI-6 injections protected guinea pigs effectively against 2 x LD50(More)
The irreversible binding of chlorpromazine radical cation (CPZ+.) and photoactivated chlorpromazine (CPZ) to calf thymus DNA in vitro and bacterial macromolecules in intact bacterium cells was investigated. CPZ+. may be formed in vivo metabolically and photochemically. CPZ+. and photo-activated CPZ bind covalently to double- and single-strand DNA. The(More)
Allergic reactions form a serious problem in therapy with the urinary antiseptic nitrofurantoin (NFT). The formation of conjugates between NFT and plasma proteins is considered to be a first step in the development of such reactions. We investigated the possibility that UV-A irradiation of NFT in the presence of plasma proteins results in covalent binding.(More)
The antibacterial drug nitrofurantoin (NFT) is notorious for causing hemolytic anemia, which may be related to the methemoglobinemia, another side-effect of NFT. As NFT is photolabile, and nitrite, well known as a MetHb generator, is an important photoproduct of NFT, it seems not unlikely that light is a cause of NFT-induced MetHb formation. When rats were(More)