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The increased international concern about the threat of military and terroristic use of nerve agents, prompted us to critically consider the expected value of the currently available oxime treatment of nerve agent poisoning. Although oximes have been designed to reactivate the inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE), clinical experience has indicated that(More)
A method was developed to study exclusively those therapeutic effects of oximes that are not related to reactivation of organophosphate-inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The model uses the organophosphorus compound crotylsarin (CRS), which proved to be a potent, irreversible, peripherally and centrally active AChE inhibitor with a very short biological(More)
The efficacy and possible health risks of pepper spray were evaluated. In a number of countries, pepper spray is being used by police forces to aid in arresting aggressive individuals. Pepper spray is commercially available as a canister filled with Capsicum extract, which contains capsaicin as the active component. When applied in the form of a spray, it(More)
The oximes HI-6, HLö-7, HGG-12, HGG-42 and obidoxime were used in a previously developed rat model to evaluate the therapeutic effects of oximes other than acetylcholinesterase (AChE) reactivation (so-called "non-reactivating effects"). To test this anaesthetized, atropinized and artificially ventilated rats (n = 8 or 16) were poisoned with a three times(More)
To prevent incapacitation following nerve agent intoxications, it is proposed to replace pyridostigmine by the centrally active carbamate physostigmine (PHY). Behavioral and neurophysiological effects of PHY were determined and whether these effects would be counteracted by scopolamine. In addition, we compared them with the effects of another reversible(More)
To investigate at which dose levels undesirable effects started, behavioural performance and several physiological parameters were measured in marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) after soman (1.75 and 3.5 micrograms/kg), sarin (3 and 6 micrograms/kg), physostigmine (10 and 20 micrograms/kg), and pyridostigmine (200 and 400 micrograms/kg). Effects on performance(More)
Effects of the oxime HI-6, unrelated to reactivation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), on field potentials in the dentate gyrus of the rat hippocampus following AChE inhibition, were investigated both in vitro and in vivo. In hippocampal slices, AChE inhibition decreased the perforant path evoked population spike amplitude (PSA). This effect could be(More)
The therapeutic efficacy of the oxime HI-6 against intoxication with the irreversible cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitor soman was tested in marmoset monkeys. Five out of six marmosets, intoxicated with 5 x LD50 soman and treated immediately with diazepam (0.2 mg.kg-1 iv) and 15 sec later with atropine (0.5 mg.kg-1 im) and HI-6 (50 mg.kg-1 im), survived for(More)
The behavioral and neurophysiological effects of the subchronically administered cholinesterase-inhibitor physostigmine (PHY) (0.025 mg/kg/h) either with or without the muscarinergic antagonist scopolamine (SCO) (0.018 mg/kg/h) were determined in guinea pigs. In contrast to a single injection of PHY, subchronic application by osmotic minipumps of PHY, even(More)
The therapeutic efficacy of single or repeated doses of HI-6, together with atropine, against soman poisoning were compared both in guinea pigs and in marmoset monkeys. In addition, the pharmacokinetics of HI-6 were determined after single or repeated injections. Both single and repeated HI-6 injections protected guinea pigs effectively against 2 x LD50(More)