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Parkinson's disease (PD) features oxidative stress and accumulation of misfolded (unfolded, alternatively folded, or mutant) proteins with associated loss of dopaminergic neurons. Oxidative stress and the accumulated misfolded proteins elicit cellular responses that include an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response that may protect cells against the(More)
We describe the cloning and characterization of a rat single transmembrane protein that is homologous to the common neurotrophin receptor p75NTR in its death domain and the transmembrane region but dissimilar outside these regions. We have dubbed this protein PLAIDD, for p75-like apoptosis-inducing death domain protein. PLAIDD messenger RNA, which is(More)
A major unanswered question in biology and medicine is the mechanism by which the product of the apolipoprotein E ε4 allele, the lipid-binding protein apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4), plays a pivotal role in processes as disparate as Alzheimer's disease (AD; in which it is the single most important genetic risk factor), atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease,(More)
A simple yet powerful optimization algorithm is proposed in this paper for solving the constrained and unconstrained optimization problems. This algorithm is based on the concept that the solution obtained for a given problem should move towards the best solution and should avoid the worst solution. This algorithm requires only the common control parameters(More)
I n today's debates on transgenic, or genetically modified (GM), crops for third world farmers, some of the most diverse positions have come from the third world itself. For instance, Indian physicist-cum-activist Vandana Shiva is one of the world's most potent opponents of GM crops, while Kenyan biologist Florence Wambugu is a leading proponent (and(More)
The canonical pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease links the expression of apolipoprotein E ε4 allele (ApoE) to amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing and Aβ peptide accumulation by a set of mechanisms that is incompletely defined. The development of a simple system that focuses not on a single variable but on multiple factors and pathways would be(More)