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The association of neuropeptide-Y (NPY)-immunoreactive (IR) axon terminals with TRH-synthesizing neurons in the rat hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) has been studied. Immunocytochemical single and double labeling studies were performed at both light and electron microscopic levels using antiserum to NPY and, as a marker of TRH-containing neurons,(More)
We have assessed the incidence and significance of changes in the caliber of the splenic and hepatic arteries, in fasting gallbladder volume, and in the intrahepatic course of the left portal vein in a group of 46 patients affected by chronic liver disease (24 with chronic active hepatitis and 22 with liver cirrhosis). Thirty normal subjects were examined(More)
A 44-yr-old man with hypocortisolism was shown to have an undetectable basal plasma ACTH level and absent or subnormal ACTH and beta-lipotropin responses to provocative testing with insulin, vasopressin, and CRH. Endocrine function after glucocorticoid replacement was otherwise normal, thus establishing the diagnosis of isolated ACTH deficiency. This(More)
Using a specific antiserum recognizing recombinant rat interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), immunoreactive material was localized to cytoplasmic granules in anterior pituitary endocrine cells and colocalized with TSH in thyrotropes. Authenticity was established by Northern blot hybridization using a specific rat IL-1 beta cRNA probe, revealing a 1.8-kilobase(More)
Historical investigation suggests that the role of the hypothalamus as a site of integration for endocrine with autonomic and behavioral responses in man rises from ideas and observations first appearing between the 14th and 18th centuries. Research on human, post-mortem brains and by in vivo magnetic resonance techniques reveal that the functional(More)
[...] It is now required to list each part needed for mucous excretion. They are two ducts in the brain substance, then a thin portion of membrane shaped as the infundibulum, then the gland that receives the tip of this infundibulum and the ducts that drive the mucus (pituita) from this gland to the palate and nares. [...] and I said that one (duct) [...](More)
To determine whether the cytokine, interleukin-1 beta, is present in the rat brain as has been reported in human brain, immunocytochemical studies were performed using an antiserum that recognizes recombinant, rat IL-1 beta. Immunoreaction product was present in the periventricular and medial hypothalamus, mossy fiber distribution in the hippocampus and(More)
The ability of adriamycin to complex cardiolipin was used to determine the distribution of cardiolipin across the inner membrane of rat liver and heart mitochondria. In both mitochondrial types, about 57 +/- 5% of the total cardiolipin was found to be located in the cytoplasmic face of the inner membrane. Mitochondria and mitoplasts were used to study the(More)
We have recently found ethnic differences in superior thyroid artery (STA) variational anatomy. Therefore, we now focus on the inferior thyroid artery (ITA). In particular, we analyze whether presence, numerical variations and site of origin of ITA are influenced by ethnic group and gender, whether and which neck side has the largest arterial caliber,(More)
  • R Toni
  • 2004
The neuroendocrine system (NES) of Vertebrates can be defined as a set of cells organized in single organs and diffuse elements, sharing co-production of amine hormone/transmitters, peptide hormone/transmitters and specific markers of neural determination. In this perspective, the hypothalamic-pituitary-target organ axis (H-P axis), the autonomic nervous(More)